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‚±‚̂悤‚ȃLƒƒƒ“ƒy[ƒ“‚ª•lŽ†‚𒆐S‚ÉŒJ‚èL‚°‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­ˆê•ûA•lŽw“±‘w‚̓[ƒYƒ”ƒFƒ‹ƒg‘哝—Ì‚Æ‚Ì’¼Ú‰ï’k‚ð—v‹‚µA1940”N‚XŒŽ27“ú‚ɁA‘gD˜J“­‚É‘®‚·‚鍕l‚ð‘ã•\‚µ‚ă‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒtANAACP‚̃EƒHƒ‹ƒ^[EƒzƒƒCƒg(Walter White)A‚»‚µ‚蕐l‚ÌŒoÏ–â‘è‚ðŠˆ“®—̈æ‚É‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‘S•Ä“sŽs“¯–¿(National Urban League)‚Ì‚sEƒA[ƒmƒ‹ƒhEƒqƒ‹(T. Arnold Hill)‚©‚ç‚È‚é‘ã•\’c‚ªƒ[ƒYƒxƒ‹ƒg‚Ɖ‚·‚é‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚½B‚»‚̏ê‚ŁA•l‘ã•\’c‚͐lŽí·•Ê‚ɑ΂·‚éR‹cs“®‚Ì’†Ž~—v¿‚É‚Í”½”­‚ðŽ¦‚·ˆê•ûA‘哝—̍s­–½—ß‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ`‚ÅŒR‘à‚É‚¨‚¯‚élŽíŠu—£‚Ì“P”p‚ÆŒRŽùŠÖ˜AŽY‹Æ‚É‚¨‚¯‚éŒÙ—p·•Ê‚ð‹ÖŽ~‚·‚邱‚ƈê’v‚µ‚ÄŽå’£‚µAŒ¾‚í‚΁uƒ_ƒuƒ‹‚uv‚̘Hü‚ɉˆ‚Á‚½—v‹‚ð“Ë‚«‚‚¯‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB[14]@‚‚܂èAíŽž‚Æ‚¢‚¤î‹µ‚ªA1930”N‘ã‚Ì“G‘ΓI‘gDŠÔ‹£‘ˆ‚ðæ‚è‰z‚¦‚蕐lŽw“±‘wŠÔ‚̈ӌ©‚Ì•sˆê’v‚ð‰ðÁ‚³‚¹Auƒ_ƒuƒ‹‚uv‚̃Rƒ“ƒZƒ“ƒTƒX‚𐶂ݏo‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚¾‚Á‚½B[15]@

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‚Æ‚±‚ë‚ŁA‘哝—̍s­–½—߂Ƃ́AƒAƒƒŠƒJ•l‚Ì—ðŽj‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ä“Á•Ê‚ȈӖ¡‚ðŽ‚Â‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚»‚à‚»‚à“z—ê‰ð•ú—ß‚ªA‹c‰ï‚̐§’肵‚½–@‚Å‚Í‚È‚­AíŽž‰º‚É”­•z‚³‚ꂽ‘哝—̍s­–½—ß‚¾‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾B‚±‚̏ے¥“IˆÓ–¡‚ ‚¢‚ðÅ‘åŒÀ‚ɐ¶‚©‚·‚½‚߂ɁAMOWC‚́Asi‚̏ꏊ‚ðA“–‰ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªƒEƒFƒuƒXƒ^[‚ÉŽ¦´‚µ‚½ƒyƒ“ƒVƒ‹ƒ”ƒFƒjƒAEƒAƒ”ƒFƒjƒ…[‚©‚çAƒŠƒ“ƒJ[ƒ“‹L”O“°‚ð–ÚŽw‚·ƒR[ƒX‚ւƕύX‚µ‚½B‚»‚Ì‚¤‚¦‚ŁAuƒŠƒ“ƒJ[ƒ“‘哝—Ì‚ª“z—ê‰ð•ú—ß‚ð”­•z‚µ‚½‚Ì‚àíŽžv‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ÆŽå’£AŽj“Iæ—á‚ðˆø‚«‡‚¢‚ɏo‚·‚±‚Ƃʼnü‚ß‚ÄŒR‚̍ō‚Ži—ߊ¯‚½‚郍[ƒYƒ”ƒFƒ‹ƒg‚É—E’f‚ð”—‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB[26]@‚±‚̂悤‚ÈMOWC‚̐헪‚́A‰^“®‚ÌŽ‚ÂŒø‰Ê‚Ì–Ê‚©‚ç‚àd—v‚ȈӖ¡‚ ‚¢‚ðŽ‚ÂB“ì–kí‘ˆ‚Æ‚¢‚¤‘–¯“I—ðŽjŒoŒ±‚ðˆø‚«‡‚¢‚ɏo‚·‚±‚ƂŁAƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚̏W’c“I‹L‰¯‚ðŠ«‹N‚µA•l‚̉^“®‚ɐ³“–«‚ð—^‚¦‚邱‚Æ‚É‚à‚‚Ȃª‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾‚Á‚½B[27]@‚‚܂èAMOWC‚́AƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚́uˆ¤‘ŽÒv‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽ‚¿‚¤‚éô‚𑍓®ˆõ‚µAƒ}ƒCƒmƒŠƒeƒB‚½‚鍕l‚̉^“®‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‚Í’v–½“I‚ȌǗ§‰»‚ð‰ñ”ð‚·‚é‚±‚Ƃɐ¬Œ÷‚µ‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚µ‚āA‚UŒŽ18“ú‚ɁAƒ[ƒYƒ”ƒFƒ‹ƒg‘哝—Ì‚ªAŽè‹l‚Ü‚èó‹µ‚ð‘ÅŠJ‚·‚邽‚߂ɁA¶ŽYŠÇ—‹Ç(Office of Production Management)‚Ì‘ã•\‚ðŒð‚¦Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒtAƒzƒƒCƒg’B‚©‚ç‚È‚éMOWC‚Ì‘ã•\’c‚Ɖï’k‚ðŽ‚Á‚½Žž“_‚É‚È‚é‚ƁAˆÈ‘O‚͍si‚Ì’†Ž~‚ð‹‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒjƒ…[ƒˆ[ƒN‚̃‰ƒK[ƒfƒBƒAŽs’·(Fiorello LaGuardia)‚È‚Ç‚ÍMOWC‘ã•\’c‚ÌŒ©‰ð‚ðŽxŽ‚·‚鑤‚É“]‚¶‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚»‚µ‚āA‚±‚̉ï‹c‚ÌŒ‹‰ÊA‚‚¢‚Ƀ[ƒYƒ”ƒFƒ‹ƒg‘哝—̂̓‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ç‚Ì—v‹‚É‹ü‚µAsi‚Ì’†Ž~‚ƈø‚«Š·‚¦‚ɍs­–½—ß‚ð”­•z‚µ‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B[28]@

 

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Œö’®‰ï‚Æ‚¢‚¤AƒpƒuƒŠƒVƒeƒB‚É‚æ‚éà“¾Žè’i‚É—Š‚éê‡A“Á‚É–â‘è‚É‚È‚é‚Ì‚ªA•lŒÙ—p‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é”’l˜J“­ŽÒ‚Ì“®Œü‚Å‚ ‚낤Bˆ«•]‚ªL‚܂邱‚Æ‚ðD‚Ü‚È‚¢ŒÙ—pŽÒ‘¤‚ƘJ“­‘g‡‚Ì—˜ŠQ‚Æ‚ªˆê’v‚µ‚½ê‡‚ɂ́AŒö’®‰ï‚ð’Ê‚¶‚Ă̌ٗp·•Ê“P”p‚͏­‚È‚©‚炸¬‰Ê‚ð‚ ‚°‚½‚Í‚¸‚Å‚ ‚éB‚»‚±‚Å‘gD˜J“­‚̑Ήž‚ðŒ©‚Ä‚Ý‚é‚ƁA‰Á–¿‘g‡‚ɍ•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚𑽐”•ø‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½ŽY‹Æ•Ê‘gD‰ï‹c(Congress of Industrial Organization)‚ł́AlŽí·•Ê‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’²¸‚ðs‚¤ˆÏˆõ‰ï‚ðÝ’u‚·‚é‚ȂǁA•lŒÙ—p‚ɍDˆÓ“I‚ȁA‚à‚µ‚­‚͍·•Ê‚É”½‘΂·‚銴î‚ª­‚È‚©‚炸‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚µ‚©‚µAlŽí·•Ê“I‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚©‚Ë‚Ä‚æ‚è”á”»‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒAƒƒŠƒJ˜J“­‘“¯–¿(American Federation of Labor)‚ł́A”’l‚É‘g‡ˆõŽ‘Ši‚ðŒÀ’肵‚Ä‚¢‚é‘g‡‚Ì’Ç•ú‚ð‹‚ß‚éŠˆàuƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒtŒˆ‹cv‚ªA‘g‡ˆõŽ‘Ši‚Ì”»’f‚͉Á–¿‘g‡‚ÌŽ©Ž¡–â‘è‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ——R‚Ŕیˆ‚³‚ꑱ‚¯‚Ä‚¢‚éî‹µ‚É‚ ‚Á‚½B[30]@‚‚܂è‘gD˜J“­‚ÌŽp¨‚Í‚æ‚­Œ¾‚Á‚ÄžB–†‚Å‚ ‚èA‚±‚ÌžB–†‚³‚É—Š‚ç‚´‚é‚𓾂Ȃ¢Žè’i‚ł́A•l‚̌ٗp‚𑣂·‚Ì‚É–¾‚ç‚©‚ÈŒÀŠE‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB[31]@

‚±‚̂悤‚È’†Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́ABSCP‚ª‘®‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Æ‚Æ‚à‚ɁAlŽí·•Ê“IE”\•Ê‘g‡‚Ì‘¶Ý‚ň«–¼‚‚¢“S“¹ŽY‹Æ–â‘è‚̌ٗp·•Ê–â‘è‚ÉŽæ‚è‘g‚ÝŽn‚߁A•ln—ûH‚̌ٗp‘£i‚ð–Ú“I‚ɍ•l‹@ŠÖŽm‘gD‰»Žb’èˆÏˆõ‰ï‚ðŒ‹¬‚µAFEPCŒö’®‰ï‚ÉŒü‚¯ØŒ¾EØ‹’‚̏€”õ‚ði‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½B[32]@‚Æ‚±‚낪A‚±‚Ì“S“¹ŽY‹Æ‚̌ٗp·•Ê‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éŒö’®‰ï‚ª[“ì•”ƒAƒ‰ƒoƒ}B‚̍H‹Æ“sŽsƒo[ƒ~ƒ“ƒOƒnƒ€‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ê‚é‚â”Û‚âA“ì•”og‚Ì‹cˆõ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŒö’®‰ï’†Ž~‚ð‹‚ß‚é­Ž¡“Iˆ³—Í‚ªsŽg‚³‚êA˜A–M‹c‰ï‚Ì“ì•”–¯Žå“}ˆõ‚ð—£”½‚³‚¹‚邱‚Ƃŏd—v‚Ȑ펞—§–@‚̐R‹c‚ª‘؂邱‚Æ‚ð‹°‚ê‚½ƒ[ƒYƒ”ƒFƒ‹ƒg­Œ ‚̐­Ž¡“I”»’f‚É‚æ‚Á‚āAŒö’®‰ï‚Ì’†Ž~‚Æ–³Šú‰„Šú‚ªŒˆ’肳‚ê‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½B[33]@‚³‚ç‚ɁAÝ—§“–‰‚͑哝—Ì’¼‘®‚Ì‹@ŠÖ‚Æ‚µ‚Ä“Æ—§‚µ‚½’nˆÊ‚ð‹Žó‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½FEPC‚́A1942”N‚WŒŽAíŽž¶ŽY‹Ç(War Production Board)‚̉º•”‘gD‚ɕύX‚³‚êAFEPC‚ªíŒã‚àŒp‘±‚µ‚Ä‘¶Ý‚·‚邽‚߂ɂ͐V‚½‚ȍs­–½—ß‚à‚µ‚­‚Í—§–@‘[’u‚ª•K—v‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½BíŽž‚䂦‚Ì—ÕŽž‘[’u‚Å‚ ‚éFEPC‚Ì—Í‚Í‹É‚ß‚ÄŽã‘̉»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB[34]@“–‘R‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚È‚ª‚çFEPC‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚锽Š´‚Í“ì•”‚Å“Á‚É‹­‚­A–k•”‚ł͌ٗp·•Ê‚ÌŽÀ‘Ô‚ÌŒö•\‚ªˆ«•]‚É‚È‚é‚̂ɑ΂µA“ì•”‚ł́A‚©‚‚ĂȂ¢‹K–͂ŏ—«‚ÌŽY‹Æ˜J“­ŽÒ‚ª‘‰Á‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é’†A•l‚ƐEê‚ð‹¤‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ªuˆÙlŽíŠÔŒ‹¥v‚̂悤‚Ȑ«“IˆÃŽ¦‚ðŠÜ‚Þ‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚èA•l‚ðŒÙ—p‚·‚邱‚ÆŽ©‘Ì‚ªŽY‹Æ‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ắuˆ«•]v‚É‚È‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B[35]@

‚±‚̂悤‚È“®‚«‚ɑ΂µƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́Asi‚Í’†Ž~‚Å‚Í‚È‚­‰„Šú‚Å‚ ‚é‚ÆŽå’£As­–½—ߊl“¾‚̍őå‚Ì—Í‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‘åO“Iˆ³—Í‚ðÄ“xŒ`¬‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð–Ú“I‚ɁAMOWC‚ðŠî‘b‚Æ‚µ‚ăƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“si‰^“®(March on Washington Movement, MOWM)‚ðV‚½‚É‘gD‚µA1942”N‰Ä‚É‘S•ÄŠe“sŽs‚Å‘å‹K–͂ȏW‰ï‚ðŠJÃ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B‚»‚Ì’†‚̈ꂁA‚UŒŽ‚Ƀjƒ…[ƒˆ[ƒN‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ꂽW‰ï‚ł́A˜J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚̍•l‚𒆐S‚É18,000l‚ÌŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚ðW‚߂邱‚Ƃɐ¬Œ÷‚·‚éB[36]@‚³‚ç‚ɁA1942”N–– ‚©‚çA”ނ́AuŒ›–@‚ð…Žç‚µAlŽíŠu—£‚ð”pŽ~‚·‚邱‚ƂŁAƒ€ƒbƒ\ƒŠ[ƒjAƒqƒgƒ‰[A—Tm‚É‘Å‚¿Ÿ‚Æ‚¤v‚ÆŒ¾‚¤ƒXƒ[ƒKƒ“‚̉º‚Łu‰ä‚àƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚È‚è"I am American, Too"W‰ïv‚ðŠJÃ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð’ñ¥‚µŽn‚ß‚éB[37]@1941”Nt‚Ƃ͈قȂéŽÀÛ‚̐펞‰º‚É‚ ‚Á‚āAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚̈¤‘“IR‹c‚Ì’²Žq‚́Aí‘ˆ‚ðŽxŽ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É“–‚½‚Á‚Ä‚æ‚è–¾Šm‚ɁA‚»‚µ‚ÄŒƒ‚µ‚­‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªthe black leader‚ƌĂ΂ê‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Í‚±‚̍ ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

‚±‚ê‚ç‚ÌŽå’£Es“®‚©‚çA•l‚̉^“®‚ªAíŽž‚̏‚Ì’†‚ŁAu–¯ŽåŽå‹`v‚Æ‚¢‚¤Žå‹`EŒ´‘¥‚ÌŽÀŒ»‚𔗂铹‹`“I’²Žq‚ð‘Ñ‚ÑŽn‚ß‚Ä‚«‚½‚Ì‚ð”F‚߂邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚éBŒ¾‚í‚΁AŒÙ—p‚Æ‚¢‚¤ŒoÏ–â‘è‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Đ­•{‚ɍs“®‚𑣂·‚½‚߂ɁA‚ªŽg‚í‚êŽn‚ß‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBŒoÏ“I–â‘è‚𒼐ړI‚É’Ç‹‚¹‚´‚é‚𓾂Ȃ©‚Á‚½‘å‹°QŠú‚̏‚ð‘z‹N‚·‚é‚È‚ç‚΁A‚©‚©‚鍕l‚Ì‘¤‚̕ω»‚Í‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åíŽž‚É‚¨‚¯‚é•Ï‰»‚Æ‚µ‚Ä“Á•M‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚悤B‚»‚µ‚āA‚±‚̈¤‘“IR‹c‰^“®‚́Aƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹ˆÈŒã‚̐¶Šˆ‚̏”‘¤–Ê‚Ì‘gD‰»‚ªi‚ñ‚¾ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚É‚ ‚Á‚āA•l‚ªƒCƒjƒVƒAƒeƒBƒ”‚ðˆ¬‚é‰^“®‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‘gD“I‚É“WŠJ‚³‚ꂽ‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚±‚ÉMOWM‚É“Á—L‚ÌŽj“IˆÓ‹`‚ª‚ ‚éB

 

‚S)1943”N‚Ì“sŽs–\“®‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z

u‰ä‚ç‚àƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚È‚èW‰ïv‚𐬌÷‚³‚¹‚Ш‚¢‚ɏæ‚Á‚½ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A1942”N‚XŒŽAMOWM­ô‰ï‹c(policy conference)‚ÌŠJÃ‚ðŒÄ‚Ñ‚©‚¯‚½B‚±‚̉ï‹c‚Ì–Ú“I‚́A•l‚ÌŽ©•“w—͂𑣐i‚·‚邽‚ß‚ÉMOWM‚ւ̉Á–¿Ž‘Ši‚ð•l‚Ì‚Ý‚ÉŒÀ’è‚·‚邱‚ƂƁANAACP‚È‚Ç‚ð‹zŽû‡•¹‚µ‚½Œ`‚ŐV‚½‚È“Æ—§‘gD‚ðŒ‹¬‚·‚邱‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B[38]@‚Æ‚±‚낪ANUL‚âNAACP‚́A˜A‡‘gD‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½MOWCA‚»‚µ‚Ä‘½‚­‚ÌŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚ðW‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½MOWMŽåÃ‚Ì‘åOW‰ï‚ւ͐ϋɓI‚É‹¦—Í‚µ‚½‚à‚̂́A‚±‚ÌŽž‚̃‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì’ñˆÄ‚É‚Í‹­‚­”½”­‚µAŒ‹‹ÇA­ô‰ï‹c‚Ö‚ÌŽQ‰Á‚ð‹‘”Û‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B[39]@íŽž‚Å‚ ‚낤‚Æ‚àA•lƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒB‚Æ‚¢‚¤ŒÀ’肳‚ꂽê‚ÅŽxŽ‚𑈂¤‘gD“I‹£‡ŠÖŒW‚Í‚â‚͂葶Ý‚µAMOWCŒ‹¬“–Žž‚̍•lŽw“±‘w‚̘A‘т͏Á‚¦Ž¸‚¹‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B‚»‚µ‚āA‘gDŠÔ‚Ì“G‘ΓI‹£‘ˆ‚©‚琊‘Þ‚µ‚½ƒiƒVƒ‡ƒiƒ‹EƒjƒOƒEƒRƒ“ƒOƒŒƒX(National Negro Congress)‚ÌŒoˆÜ‚ðŒJ‚è•Ô‚·‚©‚̂悤‚ɁAMOWM‚ÌŽÀÛ‚́g‘gD‰»h‚Æ‚È‚é‚ƁANAACPANUL‚Ì”½”­‚Ì’†‚ŁA1942”N‚Ì’† ‚©‚ç’â‘Øó‹µ‚ðŽ¦‚µA‰^“®Ž‘‹à‚·‚çŒÍŠ‰‚·‚é‚悤‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B[40]@

y•\‚Pz

 

 

 

Yes

No

ƒVƒJƒS

58

41

ƒVƒ“ƒVƒiƒeƒB

40

60

ƒƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“‚cE‚b

28

71

ƒfƒgƒƒCƒg

60

35

ƒjƒ…[ƒˆ[ƒN

51

46

ƒtƒBƒ‰ƒfƒ‹ƒtƒBƒA

42

54

ƒZƒ“ƒgƒ‹ƒCƒX

65

28

ƒeƒLƒTƒXB

30

68

ƒeƒlƒV[B

31

65

ƒTƒEƒXEƒJƒƒ‰ƒCƒiB

40

57

ƒm[ƒXEƒJƒƒ‰ƒCƒiB

27

70

ƒsƒbƒcƒo[ƒO

46

52

ƒAƒgƒ‰ƒ“ƒ^

20

75

ƒtƒƒŠƒ_B

38

60

ƒ‹ƒCƒWƒAƒiB

35

60

ƒƒTƒ“ƒ[ƒ‹ƒX

54

44

ƒIƒnƒCƒIB

46

51

“ì•”‘S‘Ì

39.4

55.2

–k•”‘S‘Ì

44.5

51.3

’j«

41.3

54.2

—«

44.2

51.7

‘Œv

41.8

53.1

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[1] Herbert Garfinkel, When Negroes March: The March on Washington Movement in the Organizational Politics (New York: Athenaeum, 1969), p.188; Jervis Anderson, A. Randolph: A Biographical Portrait (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p.246-248. Garfinkel‚Ì’˜ì‚́AƒƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“si‚̐­Ž¡“I‘¤–ʁA­•{‚Æ‚ÌŒðÂ‰ß’ö‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éA‚±‚ê‚Ü‚Å’˜‚³‚ꂽŒ¤‹†‚Ì’†‚ōłàÚ×‚È‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚邪AƒƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“si‰^“®‚̐„ˆÚ‚Ì‚Ý‚ðÅ“_‚Æ‚µ‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA–{e‚ªŒã”¼‚ňµ‚¤•l’c‘Ì‘ŠŒÝ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚â”’l‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä‚Í‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚ǐG‚ê‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

[2] Herbert Hill, Black Labor and the American Legal System: Race, Work, and the Law (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), p.144.

[3] New York Times, June 26, 1941; Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.189.‚È‚¨New York Times ‚Ì‹LŽ–‚́A‚±‚̍s­–½—ß‚Ì”wŒã‚É‚ ‚鍕l‚̉^“®E“w—Í‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͉½‚àŒ¾‹y‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

[4] Ùeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z(‚P)„Ÿ„Ÿ‘å‹°Q‚Æ‚`EƒtƒBƒŠƒbƒvEƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì“oêvw’nˆæ•¶‰»Œ¤‹†x‘æ10†(1995”N12ŒŽ): 51-75•ÅB

[5] Chicago Defender, "Randolph Tells Technique of Civil Disobedience," June 26, 1943; March on Washington Movement, Press Release, December 30, 1942, A. Philip Randolph Papers (hereafter cited as APRP), Box 26, Library of Congress; A. Philip Randolph, MOWM Press Release, January 29, 1943, APRP, Box 26.@‚Ü‚½ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì‚©‚©‚é“_‚É’…–Ú‚µA”Þ‚ðuŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚̐æ‹ìŽÒv‚ƈʒu‚¯A1950”N‘ã‚©‚ç1960”N‘ã‚̉^“®‚𒆐S‚É•ªÍ‚µ‚½Œ¤‹†‚͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBPaula F. Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph: Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1990).

[6] ‚±‚̂悤‚ÈŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®”á”»‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮA“Á‚É‚»‚ÌŒã‚Ì‹c˜_‚ɍłà‰e‹¿—Í‚Ì‚ ‚Á‚½‚à‚Ì‚Æ‚µ‚ĉ^“®“–Ž–ŽÒ‚̈ȉº‚Ì‹LŽ–‚ðŽQÆBBayard Rustin, "From Protest to Politics: The Future of the Civil Rights Movement," Commentary 39 (February, 1965): 25-31. ‚³‚ç‚ɂ́AŽÐ‰ïŠw“IŒ©’n‚©‚ç‚̃Qƒbƒg[Œ¤‹†‚É‚à“¯—l‚ÈŽw“E‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ê‚éB“Á‚ɉe‹¿—Í‚Ì‹­‚©‚Á‚½Œ¤‹†‚Æ‚µ‚āAˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆBWilliam Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp.125-126.

[7] Ùeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z(‚P)„Ÿ„Ÿ‘å‹°Q‚Æ‚`EƒtƒBƒŠƒbƒvEƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì“oêvw’nˆæ•¶‰»Œ¤‹†x‘æ10†(1995”N12ŒŽ)A52-54•ÅB

[8] Thomas Sancton, "Something Happened to the Negro," New Republic 108 (February 8, 1943), p.177; Horace Mann Bond, "Should the Negro Care Who Win the War?" Annals of the American Academy of Political  and Social Science 223 (September, 1942): 81-84; Walter White, "What the Negro Thinks of the Army," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 223 (September, 1942): 67-71.

[9] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, November 11, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Papers, Part 1: Meetings of the Board of Directors, Records of Annul Conferences, Major Speeches, and Special Reports, 1909-1950 (hereafter cited as NAACPP), ed., Mark Fox (Frederick, Md.: Microfilm Project of University Publication of America, 1983), Reel 2; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, July 8, 1934, NAACPP, Reel 2. ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‹¤ŽY“}‚ªƒn[ƒŒƒ€’n‹æ‚©‚çŽs‰ï‹cˆõ‚ð“–‘I‚³‚¹‚邱‚Ƃɂ‚Ȃª‚Á‚½‚̂́AƒGƒ`ƒIƒsƒANUR‹c‰^“®‚ðˆê‚‚̌_‹@‚Æ‚·‚鋤ŽY“}‚̍•lƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒBZ“§‚ªŒ´ˆö‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éBÚ×‚͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBMark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp.155-158.

[10] W. E. B. Du Bois, "Close Ranks, " Crisis 16 (July 1918); Mark Ellis, "'Closing Ranks' and 'Seeking Honors': W. E. B. Du Bois in World War I," Journal of American History 79 (June, 1992): 96-124; William Jordan, "The Damnable Dilemma": African-American Accommodation and Protest during Word War I," Journal of American History 81 (March, 1995): 1562-1583.

[11] ‚È‚¨Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Í‘æ‚PŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí‚ðU‚è•Ô‚Á‚ÄŽŸ‚̂悤‚ÉŒê‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

u•lŽw“±ŽÒ‚½‚¿‚͐æ‚Ì‘åí‚ŁA•½“™‚ÈŒö–¯Œ ‚Ì—v‹‚ð‘Ó‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤w[‚ȁxŠÔˆá‚¢‚ð”Æ‚µ‚½BŽ„‚½‚¿‚Í‚Q“x‚ƍĂѓ¯‚¶‰ß‚¿‚͔Ƃ·‚Ü‚¢‚ƈӂðŒÅ‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚évB

Associated Negro Press, Press Release, June 29, 1942, Claude A. Barnette Papers, Box 279, Chicago Historical Society.

[12] Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.187.

[13] Chicago Defender, October 11, 1941

[14] Walter White, A Man Called White: The Autobiography of Walter White (New York: Viking, 1948), p. 186; Pfeffer, A. Randolph, p.46; Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.187.

[15] Ùeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z(1)v54-58•ÅB

[16] Robert P. Patterson, Under Secretary of War, to Eleanor Roosevelt, June 13, 1941, Papers of Eleanor Roosevelt, 1933-1945, eds., Anne Firor Scott and William H. Chafe (Frederick, Md.: Microfilm Project of University Publication of America, 1986), Reel 15; Lester B. Granger, "Barriers to Negro War Employment," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 223 (September, 1942), pp.75-76; Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.187.

[17] PM, May 7, 1941, President of North American Aviation, as quoted in Hill, Black Labor and the American Legal System, p.177.

[18] Ùeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z(1)v58-63•ÅB

[19] "Let's March on Capital 10,000 Strong, Urges Leader of Porters," Amsterdam News, January 25, 1941, clippings in Claude A. Barnette Papers, Box 279; Negro March on Washington Committee, "Call to Negro America, 'To March On Washington For Jobs And Equal Participation in National Defense,'" 1941, unpaged, APRP, Box 25.

[20] Negro March on Washington Committee, "Call to Negro America."@‚±‚̂悤‚ȃ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì‘åOŽuŒü‚́A”ނ̈ȑO‚ÌŠˆ“®‚Ƌɂ߂ĈêŠÑ«‚ª‹­‚¢‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBNNC‘å‰ï‚ł̔ނ̎Ÿ‚Ì”­Œ¾‚Æ”äŠr‚¹‚æB

uƒpƒ[‚Ì‚Ý‚ª­ô‚ðˆø‚«o‚·‚±‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚éBƒpƒ[‚Ƃ́A‘gD‰»‚³‚ꂽ‘åOA–¾Šm‚È–Ú“I‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĘA‘Ñ‚µ‚½‘åO‚Ì‚Ý‚ªŽ‚s“®Œ´‘¥‚Å‚ ‚évB

A. Philip Randolph, "A. Philip Randolph tells 'Why I Would Not Stand for Reelection as President of the National Negro Congress'," American Federationist 47 (July, 1940), p.24.

[21] Ùeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z(1)v58-63•ÅB

[22] ‚È‚¨AƒAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï“}ˆõ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åíŽQí”½‘΂̗§ê‚ð‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï“}‚Ì•ûj‚É”½‘΂µA‚±‚ê‚ðŒ_‹@‚Ɉꎞ“I‚Å‚Í‚ ‚邪ŽÐ‰ï“}‚ð’E“}‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éBPfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, p.119.@‚Ü‚½A‘æ‚PŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí‚̍ۂ̔ނ́AŽÀÛ‚ÉŽQí”½‘Ή^“®‚ɏ]Ž–‚µ‚Ä‘ß•ß‚³‚êAíŽž’³•ñ‹@ŠÖ‚©‚çŠÄŽ‹‰º‚É‚¨‚©‚ꂽŒoŒ±‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚±‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ð‘z‹N‚·‚é‚È‚ç‚΁A‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí‚ªA‚Æ‚è‚킯‚ă‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‘å‚«‚È“]‹@‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚±‚Æ‚ð‰M‚¢’m‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚éBƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì‘æ‚PŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí”½íŠˆ“®‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBTheodore Kornweibel, Jr., No Crystal Stair: Black Life and the Messenger, 1917-1923 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1975), pp.21-35.

[23] Negro March on Washington Committee, "Call to Negro America,"; Pfeffer, A. Randolph, p.68; Philip S. Foner, Organized Labor and Black Worker, 1619-1981 (New York: International Publishers, enlarged 2nd ed., 1981), p.240; Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.59. ƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[’B‚́AŽdŽ–‚ª‚çˆê”ʂ̍•l‚æ‚è‚àŠˆ“®—̈悪L‚­A‘S•ÄŠe’n‚ÌŠe’n‚̍•lŽÐ‰ï‚ɏî•ñ‚ð“`”d‚·‚é–ðŠ„‚ð‰Ê‚½‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚³‚ç‚É‚Í‚Ü‚½Aƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ŽÐ‚Æ‚¢‚¤“–Žž‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ‚ð‘ã•\‚·‚é“S“¹‰ïŽÐ‚Ɍٗp‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é”Þ‚ç‚́A˜J“­ŽÒ‚Æ嫂àA”’l‚ÆŠr‚ׂé‚Æ‹É’[‚ɘJ“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚̔䗦‚ª‚‚¢•lƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒB“à‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Í‚Þ‚µ‚ë’†ŽYŠK‹‰“I‘¶Ý‚Å‚ ‚èA‘½‚­‚̍•lƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒB‚ŃŠ[ƒ_[ƒVƒbƒv‚ð’S‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½Bƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚ª‰Ê‚½‚µ‚½uƒƒfƒBƒAv‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ì–ðŠ„A‚È‚ç‚тɃRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒBEƒŠ[ƒ_[‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ì–ðŠ„‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮAˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆBE. D. Nixon interview, in Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression, ed. Studs Terkel (Pantheon Books, 1970), pp.117-122; St. Clair Drake and Horace H. Cayton, Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945), pp.235-236.

[24] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, June 9, 1941, June 26, 1941, NAACPP, Reel 9.

[25] Eleanor Roosevelt to A. Philip Randolph, June 10, 1941, Papers of Eleanor Roosevelt, Reel 15; A. Philip Randolph to Eleanor Roosevelt, June 5, 1941, Papers of Eleanor Roosevelt, Reel 15.

[26] March on Washington Committee, "Call to Negro America."

[27] Scott A. Sandage, "A Marble House Divided: the Lincoln Memorial, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Politics of Memory, 1939-1963," Journal of American History 80 (June, 1993), pp.153-159.

[28] New York Times, June 26, 1941; Associated Negro Press, Press Release, July 17, 1941, Claude A. Barnette Papers, Box 279.

[29] Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.187-189; War Manpower Commission, Developments in the Employment of Negroes in War Industries, War Manpower Report," War Manpower Commission Records, RG 211, Series 115, Box 793, National Archives.

[30] New York Times, October 14, October 15, 1942; Granger, "Barriers to Negro War Employment," p.79; Foner, Organized Labor and Black Worker, pp.249-250, p.256.

[31] ˜J“­‘g‡‚ª•l‚̌ٗp‚É’ïR‚µAFEPC‚ÌŠˆ“®‚̏áŠV‚É‚È‚Á‚½Ž–—á‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBHerbert Hill, Black Labor and the American Legal System, pp.274-334.

[32] Harold A. Stevens to Milton P. Webster, February 25, 1942, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Papers (hereafter cited as BSCPP), Box 7, Chicago Historical Society; Pfeffer, A. Randolph, p.93.

[33] John Beecher, "8802 Blues," New Republic 108 (February 22, 1943), p.249; "Jim Crow Bloc," New Republic 108 (February 22, 1943), pp.240-241.

[34] New York Times, August 18, 1942

[35] Wilbur J, Cash, The Mind of the South (New York: Vintage, 1941), chapter 3.

[36] New York Times, June 13, 1942: Associated Negro Press, Press Release, June 29, 1942, Claude A. Barnette Papers, Box 279; George F. McCray, Associated Negro Press, Press Release, June 29, 1942, Claude A. Barnette Papers, Box 279; Pfeffer, A. Randolph, p.51; Garfinkel, When Negroes March, p.94.

[37] The March on Washington Movement, Press Release, December 9, 1942, APRP, Box 26; A. Philip Randolph, the March on Washington Movement, Press Release, December 24, 1942, APRP, Box 26. @‚È‚¨A‰^“®‚̃^ƒCƒgƒ‹‚́A•l‚ªW’c‚Æ‚µ‚ĐlŽí·•Ê‚Ì”íŠQ‚ðŽó‚¯‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ð‹­’²‚µAŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚ª‚æ‚èW’c‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̈ӎ¯‚ðŽ‚Â‚±‚Ƃ𑣂·‚悤‚ɁAŽåŒê‚Í"I"‚©‚ç"We"‚ւƕύX‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½BWilliam Y. Bell, Jr., Executive Secretary of Atlanta Urban League to A. Philip Randolph, January 14, 1943, APRP, Box 24.

[38] Plans for Permanent Organization of March on Washington Committee, APRP, Box 26; Constitution of the March on Washington Movement, Article V gMembership,h APRP, Box 26.

[39] Lester B. Granger to A. Philip Randolph, September 1, 1942, APRP, Box 24; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, September 14, 1941, NAACPP, Reel 3.

[40] Charles Wesley Barton, Regional Director of MOWM, to A. Philip Randolph, June 11, 1942, APRP, Box 24. NAACPANUL‚Ì—£”½‚à‘Š˜Ö‚Á‚āAMOWM‚Ì’†Šj‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚ÍBSCP‚Å‚ ‚èAMOWM‚Ì—\ŽZ‚̐Ԏš•ª‚ÍBSCP‚ª•â“U‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½BGarfinkel, When Negroes March, p.85.@‚Ü‚½ABSCP‚ÌMOWM‚ɑ΂·‚é‘S–Ê“IŽxŽAMOWMW‰ï‚̏€”õŽx‰‡‚ɂ‚¢‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBMinutes of Business Meeting of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Chicago Division, May 29, 1942; June 23, 1942, BSCPP, Box 7; Theodore Brown to A. Philip Randolph, July 17, 1943, APRP, Box 25; A. Philip Randolph to Milton P. Webster, June 17, 1942, APRP, Box 25; A. Philip Randolph to Bennie Smith, October 15, 1942, APRP, Box 25; Bennie Smith to A. Philip Randolph, October 2, 1942, APRP, Box 25.@‚±‚ê‚ç‚Ì’†‚ŁABSCP‚ÌŠ²•”‚Å‚à‚ ‚éBennie Smith‚ÆTheodore Brown ‚̎莆‚́AMOWM‚ÌŒ¨‘‚«‚ðŽg‚¢‚‚‚àABSCP‚̃Œƒ^[ƒwƒbƒh‚ŏ‘‚©‚ê‚Ä‚¨‚èAMOWM‚É‚¨‚¯‚éBSCP‚̓ˏo‚µ‚½–ðŠ„‚Ì‚Ý‚È‚ç‚¸A‘gD“I¬—‚ð‚à‰M‚킹‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚È‚¨ANNC‚ƍ•l’c‘Ì‚Ì“G‘ΓI‹£‡ŠÖŒW‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮAÙeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’z(1)v58-73•ÅB

[41] "Do You Believe That a 'March on Washington, With Congress in Session, Would Accomplish Any Material Good?" Pittsburgh Courier, October 17, 1942, p.4.

[42] Garfinkel, When the Negroes March, p.55, pp.67-69.

[43] Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-1963 (New York: Touchstone, 1988), p.231; Aldon D. Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (New York: Free Press, 1984), p.103

[44] Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement, pp.166-167; Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, p.172; Robin D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990), pp.195-219.@‚È‚¨A‚±‚ê‚Æ“¯‚¶ AƒAƒo[ƒiƒV[‚Æ“¯‚¶‚­ƒ{ƒCƒRƒbƒg‚̃Š[ƒ_[‚Æ‚È‚é‚dE‚cEƒjƒNƒ\ƒ“‚́ABSCP‚̃‚ƒ“ƒgƒSƒƒŠ[Žx•”‰ï’·‚Æ‚µ‚āAƒ‚ƒ“ƒgƒSƒƒŠ[‚Å—LŒ ŽÒ“o˜^‰^“®‚ðŠJŽn‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚³‚ç‚ɁA­‚µŽž‘ã‚͉º‚邪Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́AƒAƒgƒ‰ƒ“ƒ^‚̍•l‚Ì’nˆÊŒüã‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ă}[ƒeƒBƒ“Eƒ‹[ƒT[EƒLƒ“ƒO(ƒVƒjƒA)‚©‚珕Œ¾‚ð‹‚ß‚ç‚êAˆ³—Í‚ðŒ`¬‚·‚邽‚ß‚ÉMOWM‚É•í‚Á‚蕐l‚É‚æ‚é‘gD‚ðŒ‹¬‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ðŠ©‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚éBA. Philip Randolph to Martin Luther King, May 25, 1945, APRP, Box 25.

[45] Herbert Hill, Black Labor and the American Legal System, p.180.

[46] Harvard Sitkoff, "Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War," Journal of American History 58 (December, 1971), p.671; Foner, Organized Labor and Black Worker, p.265.

[47] New York Times, June 19, 1942.

[48] Granger, "Barriers to Negro War Employment," p.72; Herbert Hill, Black Labor and the American Legal System, p.264; Foner, Organized Labor and Black Worker, p.255.

[49] New York Times, June 19, 1942; Herbert Hill, Black Labor and the American Legal System: Race, Work, and the Law, p.264.@UAW‚ªAŽw“±‘w‚Ì•½“™Žå‹`“I‚ȍsˆ×‚É‚æ‚Á‚āA•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚ð‘gD‰»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½‰ß’ö‚͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBAugust Meier and Elliot Rudwick, Black Detroit and the Rise of the UAW (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979).

[50] War Manpower Commission, Developments in the Employment of Negroes in War Industries, War Manpower Report, October 16, 1943, War Manpower Commission Records, RG 211, Series 115, Box 793, National Archives.

[51] Thomas J. Sugrue, "Crabgrass-Roots Politics: Race, Rights and the Reaction against Liberalism in the Urban North, 1940-1964," Journal of American History 82 (September, 1995): 551-578. ‚È‚¨A–\“®‚́AŽ–‘Ô‚ªŽûE‚³‚ê‚é‚Ü‚Å‚É34–¼(“à25–¼‚ª•l)‚ªŽ€–S‚·‚鎖‘Ô‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½B‚±‚Ì‹]µŽÒ”‚ðã‰ñ‚é‚̂́A1967”N‚̃fƒgƒƒCƒg–\“®‚Æ1992”N‚̃ƒTƒ“ƒ[ƒ‹ƒX–\“®‚Ì‚Ý‚Å‚ ‚éB

[52] ‚½‚Æ‚¦‚΁A‘æ‚PŽŸ¢ŠE‘åíŽž‚̃C[ƒXƒgEƒZƒ“ƒgEƒ‹ƒCƒX–\“®‚à•l‚̌ٗp‚ðŒ´ˆö‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½BElliot Rudwick, Race Riot at East St. Louis July 2, 1917 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, reprint ed., 1982).

[53] New York Times, June 22, June 23, 1943; "Defeat at Detroit," Nation 157 (July 3, 1943), p.4; Thomas Sancton, "The Race Riots," New Republic 109 (July 5, 1943), p.175; Mary Sarton, "Who Wakes: Detroit, June, 1943," New Republic 109 (August 16, 1943), p.222.@‚È‚¨–\“®’¼Œã‚ɏ‘‚©‚ꂽNew York Times‚̘_à‚à“¯‚¶—§ê‚ð‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB"Tragedy in Detroit," New York Times, June 22, 1943.

[54] New York Times, June 23, 1943; Granger, "Barriers to Negro War Employment," p.73.@‚È‚¨AíŒã‚·‚®‚ÉUAW-CIO‰ï’·‚É‚È‚éƒEƒHƒ‹ƒ^[EƒŠƒ…[ƒT[‚à•l‚̌ٗp‚Ì–â‘è‚ðí‘ˆ‚Ì•¶–¬‚Å‘¨‚¦‚Ä“ì•”‚Ì“S“¹Œö’®‰ï‰„Šú‚ɍR‹c‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

uŽ„‚́AM—Š‚ ‚é‹Ø‚©‚çA“S“¹ŽY‹Æ‚Ì‚¨‚¯‚鍕l·•Ê‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä•´‚ê‚à‚È‚¢Ø‹’‚𓾂Ă¢‚Ü‚·BEEE“S“¹‰ïŽÐ‚́AæŒ©‚Ì–¾‚Ì‚È‚¢“S“¹˜J“­‘g‡‚Æ‹¤–d‚µ‚āAƒ[ƒYƒ”ƒFƒ‹ƒg‘哝—̍s­–½—ß8802†‚É”½‚µA‘gD“I‚ɍ•l‰ÎŽm‚ðŒÙ—p‚©‚ç”rœ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B‚»‚µ‚Ä‚±‚̂悤‚ÈŠˆ“®‚ªA¡‘åí‚̏Ÿ—˜‚É•s‰ÂŒ‡‚Å‚ ‚鍕l‚̍vŒ£AŽm‹C‚ɑ΂µ[‚È‘ÅŒ‚‚ð—^‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·BEEEvB

Press Release, Jan 14, 1943, UAW-CIO, APRP, Box 25.

[55] New York Times, June 25, 1943.

[56] Walter White, "Behind the Harlem Riot," New Republic 109 (August 16, 1943), p.222.

[57] Arnold R. Hirsch, Making of the Second Ghetto: Race & Housing in Chicago 1940-1960 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p.44; Drake and Cayton, Black Metropolis, pp.91-92.

[58]Hirsch, Making of the Second Ghetto, p.42.

[59]"The Negro, His Future in America," New Republic, Special Edition (October 18, 1943), p.535, p.550.

[60] ‚È‚¨ASitkoff‚́A–{e‚Æ“¯‚¶‚­A‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí’†‚ɐ¶‚¶‚½”’lƒŠƒxƒ‰ƒ‹‚̍•l‰^“®‚Ö‚ÌŽQ‰Á‚ª‹}‘¬‚ɐi“W‚µ‚½‚±‚Æ‚ðŽw“E‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éBSitkoff, "Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War," pp.678-679.@‚µ‚©‚µA”Þ‚ÌŽw“E‚́AŠÌS‚Ì"militancy"‚ª”@‰½‚È‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Ì‚©‚ð‹K’肵‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢“_‚ÉŒˆ’è“I‚ÈŽã“_‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

[61] Robert Korstad and Nelson Lichtenstein, "Opportunities Found and Lost: Labor, Radicals, and the Early Civil Rights Movement," Journal of American History 75 (December, 1988): 786-811.

[62] "Special Message to the Congress on Civil Rights," February 2, 1948, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948), p.126.

[63] Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1942), pp.xlvii-xlviii.

[64] "Special Message to the Congress on Civil Rights," February 28, 1963, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Containing the Public Messages (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963), p.222.

[65] Pfeffer, A. Randolph, p.278.

[66] ‚©‚©‚é–â‘è‚ÌŽ–ŽÀŠÖŒW‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮA‘gD˜J“­‚̍ª‹­‚¢lŽí·•Ê‚ðÕ‚¯‚½ˆÈ‰º‚ÌFoner‚̐æ‹ì“IŒ¤‹†‚ªÚ‚µ‚¢BFoner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker, pp.307-308.@‚È‚¨AFoner‚́A‚±‚ê‚ðA”Þ‚ÌŠî–{“Iƒpƒ‰ƒ_ƒCƒ€‚Å‚ ‚éA˜J“­‰^“®‚ɍª‹­‚¢u·•Êv‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽw“E‚·‚é‚É—¯‚Ü‚èAUAW‚É“àÝ‚·‚éŒÀŠE‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Í‘¨‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

[67] ‚±‚±‚Å‘z‹N‚³‚ê‚é‚Ì‚ªAƒŠƒxƒ‰ƒ‹‚È—ðŽj‰ÆArthur Schlesinger, Jr.‚ª‹ß”N’˜‚µ˜b‘è‚É‚È‚Á‚½ƒuƒ‰ƒbƒNEƒiƒVƒ‡ƒiƒŠƒYƒ€”á”»‚Å‚ ‚낤BArthur Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society (New York: Whittle Direct Books, 1991), pp.20-37.@‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA•l‚̉^“®‚ðƒAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚Ö‚Ì“‡‚ð‹‚ß‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Æ‹K’è‚·‚é”Þ‚Ì”FŽ¯‚́A“Á‚É–{e‚Ì‘æ‚P•”‚Ř_‚¶‚½A•l‘¤‚Ì”FŽ¯‚ÌŠî’ê‚ɂ͏í‚ɃJƒ‰[EƒRƒ“ƒVƒƒƒX‚È—¬‚ꂪ‚ ‚邱‚Ƃ𖳎‹‚µ‚½‹É‚߂Ĉê–Ê“I‚È‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚È‚¨•l˜J“­Žj‰Æ‚ÌEarl Lewis‚àA”’lˆÚ–¯‚ªu˜J“­‚̏ê‚ł͘J“­ŽÒA‰Æ’ë‚ł̓GƒXƒjƒbƒNv‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Q‚‚̎©ŒÈ”FŽ¯‚ð‚·‚é‚悤‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚̂ɑ΂µA•l‚͏í‚ɘJ“­‚̏ê‚Å‚à‚ ‚­‚܂ŁulŽív‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽ©ŒÈ‚ð”FŽ¯‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚ðŽw“E‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éBEarl Lewis, In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, Power in Twentieth-Century Norfolk, Virginia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), pp.4-5.

[68] Malcolm X, "Ballot or Bullet," April 3, Cleveland, in Malcolm X Speaks, ed., George Breitman (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1965), p.26.@‚È‚¨A1943”N‚Ì–\“®‚Ń}ƒ‹ƒRƒ€‚w‚ª–\“k‚Æ‚µ‚čs“®‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½“_‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮAˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆBMalcolm X, Autobiography of Malcolm X (London: Penguin Books, 1965), pp.202-204.