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1970”N‘ãˆÈ~‚ɍs‚í‚ꂽŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®Žj‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Ƃ́A‚ ‚éˆÓ–¡‚ł́A‚±‚́u‚ä‚Á‚­‚è‚Æ‚µ‚½”­“W‚Ì“¹v‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Å‚ ‚é‚ÆŒ¾‚¦‚悤B‚»‚µ‚āA‚±‚ê‚ç‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Ì‘½‚­‚ªAŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚ɘA‚Ȃ鐭Ž¡“IEŽÐ‰ï“IEŒoÏ“I•Ï‰»‚Ì‹NŒ¹‚ðAwƒuƒ‰ƒEƒ“x”»Œˆ‚æ‚èˆÈ‘O‚Ì1930”N‘ã‚É‚Ý‚Æ‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚±‚ÌŽž‘ã‚ɁA•l‚́A–¯Žå“}ƒŠƒxƒ‰ƒ‹”h‚𐭎¡–Ê‚ÌŽ²‚ɁAŽs–¯’c‘́A˜J“­‘g‡‚ð‹Š‡‚µ‚½˜A‡‘Ì‚ðŒ`¬AÅI“I‚É‚Í1964”NŒö–¯Œ –@¬—§‚ðŠl“¾‚·‚é‚ÉŽŠ‚éB‚±‚̏ŠˆàuŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡v‚́Auƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹˜A‡v‚ƌĂ΂ê‚鐭Ž¡¨—Í‚Æ•\— ˆê‘Ì‚ð‚È‚·‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èAƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ô‚É”º‚¤˜A–M­•{‚ÌŒ ŒÀ‚ªŠg‘傳‚ꂽŽž‹@‚ɁA‚Ü‚³‚É‚»‚ÌŒ`¬Šú‚ª‚ ‚éB‚»‚ÌŒã‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ•l‚Ì—ðŽj‚ªAˆê•û‚ɘA–M­•{A‘¼•û‚É“ì•”B­•{‚Æ‚¢‚¤‘¶Ý‚̉e‹¿‚ð‹­‚­Žó‚¯‚È‚ª‚ç“WŠJ‚³‚ꂽ‚±‚ƂŁA‚±‚ÌŽžŠú‚Í“ì–kí‘ˆ’¼Œã‚ðuÄŒšŠúv‚ƌĂԂ±‚Ƃɑ΂µAu‘æ‚QŽŸÄŒšŠúv‚ƌĂ΂ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB [2]

–{e‚́Aw’nˆæ•¶‰»Œ¤‹†x‘æ11†‚ÉŒfÚ—\’è‚̕ʍeiu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’zi‚Qj`ˆ¤‘“IR‹c‚Æ‚µ‚ẴƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“‘åsiA1942”Nvj‚Æ•¹‚¹‚āA‘å‹°Q‚Æ‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åíŠú‚É‚¨‚¯‚鍕lŽw“±ŽÒ‚Ì–â‘è”FŽ¯‚̕ω»‚ðŒŸ“¢‚µA‚»‚̕ω»‚ÆŒã‚ÌŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚Ì“WŠJ‚Æ‚ÌŠÖ˜A‚ð˜_‚¶‚邱‚Æ‚ð–Ú“I‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB•ªÍEŒŸ“¢‚Ì’†S‚É‚¨‚©‚ê‚é‚Ì‚ªA1930”N‘ãˆÈ—ˆA1960”N‘ã‚ÉŽŠ‚é‚܂ňêŠÑ‚µ‚蕐lŽw“±‘w‚ð’S‚Á‚½‚`EƒtƒBƒŠƒbƒvEƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒtiA. Philip Randolphj‚Ì–â‘è”FŽ¯‚ƔނªŽw“±‚µ‚½‰^“®‚ÌŽÀ‘Ô‚Å‚ ‚éB–{e‚ł́AŽå‚É‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí’†‚̉^“®‚ðˆµ‚¤•Êe‚ɑ΂µA–{e‚ł́A‘å‹°Q‚ƃjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹‚É‚æ‚é•Ï‰»‚ªƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚̍•l‚̉^“®‚É‹y‚Ú‚µ‚½‰e‹¿‚ð˜_‚¶‚éB‚³‚ç‚É–{e‚ł́A20¢‹I‚̍•l‚̉^“®‚ª1909”N‚ɐݗ§‚³‚ꂽ‘S‘•lŒüã‹¦‰ïiNational Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleANAACPj‚𒆐S‚É“WŠJ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚«‚½Ž–ŽÀ‚𓥂܂¦Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì“oê‚ÌŽ‚ˆӋ`‚ðNAACP‚̏󋵂ƔäŠrlŽ@‚·‚邱‚ƂŁA”Þ‚ª•lŽw“±‘w‚Æ‚µ‚Ä”F’m‚³‚ꂽ‚±‚Æ‚Ì—ðŽj“IˆÓ–¡‚ð˜_‚¶A1930”N‘ã‚ÌŽj“IˆÊ’u‚¯‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éÄl‚ðŽŽ‚Ý‚éB

‚Æ‚±‚ë‚ŁAŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚ð“Á’¥‚̈ê‚‚ªAƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚̎Љï‰^“®‚Å‚Í‘¼‚É—á‚ðŒ©‚È‚¢‹­—Í‚È‘åO“®ˆõ—Í‚Å‚ ‚낤B‰^“®‚ÉŽQ‰Á‚µ‚½‘åO‚Ì’†‚©‚çAŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚͐”‘½‚­‚̉p—Y‚𐶂ݏo‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½Bƒ‚ƒ“ƒgƒSƒƒŠ[EƒoƒXEƒ{ƒCƒRƒbƒg‚̍ۂɁAƒ{ƒCƒRƒbƒg‚Ì‚½‚ß‚É•à‚­‚±‚Æ‚Å”æ˜J‚ª‚½‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©‚Ɛq‚Ë‚ç‚ꂽ˜V•wl‚ªuy‚ ‚½‚µz‚Ì‘«‚Í‚­‚½‚­‚½‚Å‚·‚¯‚ǁAS‚͈À‚ç‚©‚Å‚·v‚Æ“š‚¦‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤ƒGƒsƒ\[ƒh‚́A‚»‚̌㉽“x‚àŒê‚ç‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B‚Ü‚½A1964”N‚Ì–¯Žå“}‘S‘‘å‰ï‚Ń~ƒVƒVƒbƒsB‚Å‚Ì“Š•[Œ ”’D‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éÕŒ‚“I‚ȏ،¾‚ðs‚Á‚½ŽÒ‚àA‚‚¢Šw—ð‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚킯‚Å‚à‚È‚¯‚ê‚΁AŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®ŽQ‰ÁˆÈ‘O‚ɉ^“®’c‘Ì‚ÆŠÖŒW‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚킯‚Å‚à‚È‚¢•lƒVƒFƒAƒNƒƒbƒp[Aƒtƒ@ƒj[Eƒ‹[EƒwƒCƒ}[(Fannie Lou Hamer)‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚µ‚āA”ޏ—‚½‚¿‚̂悤‚ȉp—Y‚ð‚‚­‚肾‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½Œö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚Ì’ê•Ó‚É—¬‚ê‚él‚¦‚ªAE‹Æ“IŠˆ“®‰Æ‚â’mŽ¯l‚Å‚Í‚È‚­AŽsˆä‚ɐ¶‚«‚éˆê”ʂ̐lX‚ÌŽp‚ðÌ—g‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B [3] ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚̍•l‚̑命”‚ª‚Ƃ͑唼‚ª˜J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚©‚ç‚È‚élŽíW’c‚È‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ð‘z‹N‚·‚é‚È‚ç‚΁A‰^“®‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒ‚Ì‘¤‚ɘJ“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚ɑ΂·‚éŠú‘҂ƐM—Š‚È‚­‚µ‚āAlŽí‘S‘̂𓮈õ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚悤‚È‚©‚©‚él‚¦•ûAŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚Ì‘åO“®ˆõ‚́A‰^“®‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒ‚Ì‘¤‚É‚¨‚¯‚éA˜J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚ɑ΂·‚éŠú‘҂ƐM—Š‚È‚­‚µ‚Ä‚Í‚ ‚蓾‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Å‚ ‚낤B‚Æ‚±‚낪A•l‚̉^“®Žw“±‘w‚ÌŽv’ª‚ðŒ©‚Ä‚Ý‚é‚ƁA‚©‚©‚él‚¦•û‚â‰^“®‘œ‚ª—ðŽj‚ð’Ê‚¶‚Â˂Ɏx”z“I‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚킯‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢Bƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì“oê‚ɏے¥‚³‚ê‚鍕lŽw“±‘w‚ÌŒð‘ã‚́A•l‚̉^“®Žv‘z‚É‚¨‚¯‚é]—ˆ‚Ì•ûŒü‚Æ‚Ì’fâ‚Æ‚àŒ¾‚¢‚¤‚é•Ï‰»‚ð•\‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚èA‚±‚̕ω»‚È‚­‚µ‚Ä‚Í‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åíŒã‚Ì‘åO‰^“®‚Í‚ ‚肦‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [4]

 

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‘æ‚PŠúƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ô‚̍ªŠ²‚½‚é‘S‘•œ‹»‹ÇiNational Recovery Administrationj‚ÌŽ{ô‚ªA•l‚©‚ç"Negro Removal Act"‚Ɲˆ‰‚³‚ꂽ‚±‚Æ‚ª’[“I‚ÉŽ¦‚·‚悤‚ɁAƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ô‚́A‘½‚­‚̏ꍇA•l‚ÌŒoÏ¶Šˆ‚Ì‚³‚ç‚Ȃ鈫‰»‚ð‚à‚½‚炵‚½B [5] 1933”N10ŒŽ‚É‚Í–ñ210–œlA•l‘lŒû‚Ì–ñ18“‚ª˜A–M‚Ì•ŸŽƒ‹~Ï‚̑ΏۂƂȂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚ªA‚±‚̐”Žš‚͏‰Šúƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ô‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚ª–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚È‚Á‚½1935”N‚PŒŽ‚É‚Í–ñ350–œlA•l‘lŒû‚Ì–ñ30“‚܂ŏ㏸‚·‚éB‚³‚ç‚ɂ́A1936”NˆÈ~‚Ì‘æ‚QŠúƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ô‚̏ꍇ‚àA•l‚ÌŒoÏó‹µ‚ð‰ü‘P‚³‚¹‚é•ûŒü‚É‚Í“­‚©‚È‚©‚Á‚½B‘S‘˜J“­ŠÖŒW–@iNational Labor Relation ActA’ʏ̃ƒOƒi[–@j‚ƎЉï•Ûá–@iSocial Security Actj‚ªA“–Žž‚̍•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚̑唼‚ª]Ž–‚·‚é”_‹Æ‚ƉƎ–˜J“­‚ðœŠO‚µ‚½‚±‚Æ‚ªŽå‚ÈŒ´ˆö‚ŁA•l‚ÌŒoÏ¶Šˆ‚Í‚³‚ç‚Ɉ«‰»‚·‚铹‚ð‚½‚Ç‚èAƒWƒ‡[ƒWƒABƒAƒgƒ‰ƒ“ƒ^‚Å‚Í‘ŒÙ—plŒû‚ɐè‚߂鍕llŒû‚ª33.4“‚Å‚ ‚é‚̂ɑ΂µA•l‚̌ٗp‘lŒû‚Ì65.7“‚ª•ŸŽƒ‹~Ï‚̑ΏۂƂȂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚̂悤‚ȏ󋵂ð‚Ђ«‚¾‚µ‚½Œ´ˆö‚Í•K‚¸‚µ‚àlŽí·•Ê‚Ì‚Ý‚ÉŠÒŒ³‚Å‚«‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A—Ⴆ‚΁A“ì•”“sŽsƒAƒgƒ‰ƒ“ƒ^‚æ‚è‚͐lŽí“I‚É‚æ‚芰—e‚Å‚ ‚é‚ÆŽv‚í‚ê‚éƒjƒ…[ƒˆ[ƒN‚Å‚³‚¦‚àAŒÙ—plŒû‚ɐè‚߂鍕llŒû”ä4.7“‚ɑ΂µA•ŸŽƒ‹~Ï‚ðŽó‚¯‚Ä‚¢‚鍕l‚Í‚»‚Ì–ñ2.5”{‚É‚ ‚½‚é11.2“‚ɏã‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [6]

‚‚܂èAƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ôŽ©‘̂ɐlŽí·•Ê“I‹K’è‚Í‘¶Ý‚¹‚¸A˜A–M‚̐­ô‚ªŒoÏŠK’ò‚̍ʼnº‘w‚É•K‚¸‚µ‚às‚«“Í‚©‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚½‚߂ɁA‚±‚ê‚܂ł̐lŽí·•ÊŒÌ‚ɐƎã‚ÈŒoÏ“IŠî”Õ‚É‚¨‚©‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½•l‚ɑ΂µ‚±‚ê‚ç‚̐­ô‚ªŒ‹‰Ê‚Æ‚µ‚ĐlŽí·•Ê“I‚É“­‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āA‚±‚̂悤‚ȏ󋵂ɒ¼–Ê‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‰º‚ł́A•l‚ɂ́AŽY‹Æ•œ‹»‚Ì‚½‚߂Ƀjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ôˆê”Ê‚É‚ÍŽ^¬‚µ‚‚A•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚̌•ʓI—˜ŠQ‚ð‹­‚­Žå’£‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚±‚Æ‚ª•K—v‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚Æ‚±‚낪A•l’c‘Ì‚Ì‘å‹°Q‚ւ̑Ήž‚́AÏ‹É“I‚È‘gD‰»U¨‚ɏæ‚èo‚µAƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ô‚̏Šˆàu¶ù‰ñv‚𓱂«o‚µ‚½uƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹˜A‡v‚̈ꗃA˜J“­‘g‡‚Æ”äŠr‚·‚é‚È‚ç‚΁A–¾‚ç‚©‚É—§‚¿’x‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½B˜A–Ms­”‹@ŠÖ‚Ì‘p¶‚âAƒƒOƒi[–@‚É‚æ‚é˜J“­‘g‡‚Ì’nˆÊ‚ÌŠm—§‚È‚Ç‚ð’Ê‚¶‚āAƒAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚ª‹}‘¬‚É‘gD‰»‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­’†‚É‚ ‚Á‚āA•l‚Ì—˜ŠQ‚ð‘ã•\‚·‚é‚ׂ«NAACP‚Æ‘S‘“sŽs“¯–¿iNational Urban LeagueANULj‚ªŒø‰Ê“I‚ȘA–M‹c‰ïƒƒr[Šˆ“®‚ÉŽ¸”s‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚Ì•\‚ê‚ɁA‹c‰ï‚ō•l‚Ì—˜‰v‚ð‘ã•\‚µ‚ď،¾‚É—§‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚̂́Aƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ôŠJŽnŒã‚É‹}篌‹¬‚³‚ꂽ‘S‘•œ‹»‡“¯ˆÏˆõ‰ïiJoint Committee on National RecoveryAJCNRj‚́A‘åŠw‚ðo‚ÄŠÔ‚à‚È‚¢Â”N•lAƒWƒ‡ƒ“E‚oEƒfƒCƒ”ƒBƒXiJohn P. Davisj‚ƃƒo[ƒgE‚bEƒEƒB[ƒ”ƒ@[iRobert C. Weaverj‚Ì“ñl‚¾‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [7]

‚±‚ê‚Ü‚ÅNAACP‚âNUL‚Ȃǂ̍•l’c‘Ì‚Ì“Á’¥“I•ûj‚́A•l‚Ì’†‚Å‹Z”\‚ƍ˔\‚ ‚éŒÂl‚ªæ‹ì‚Æ‚È‚Á‚ĐlŽí•ÎŒ©‚ð‘Å”j‚·‚邱‚ƂŐlŽí‘S‘Ì‚ÌŒüã‚ª’B¬‚³‚ê‚é‚Æ‚·‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚±‚̍˔\‚ÉŒb‚܂ꂽ•lA‚‚܂荕l‚Ì–¢—ˆ‚ÌŠó–]‚ð’S‚¤ŽÒ‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ðAuË”\‚Ì‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚ƌĂԁB [8] 1920”N‘ãA•l‚Ì•¶Œ|EŒ|pŠˆ“®‚̏§—オA–{—ˆ‚͐lŒ ’c‘Ì‚Å‚ ‚éNAACP‚âAŽÐ‰ï•ŸŽƒ’c‘Ì‚Å‚ ‚éNUL‚ð’Ê‚¶Šˆ”­‚ɍs‚í‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚̂ɂ́A‚©‚©‚é‰^“®Žv‘z“I”wŒi‚ª‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½BŠˆàuƒn[ƒŒƒ€Eƒ‹ƒlƒTƒ“ƒXv‚ƌĂ΂ê‚é‚Ì‚ª‚±‚ÌŽžŠú‚Å‚ ‚éB [9] ‚±‚́uË”\‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚ÌŽv‘z‚É‹’‚Á‚Ä—§‚ÂNAACP‚ÆNUL‚́A‚µ‚΂µ‚΁u’†ŽYŠK‹‰“I’c‘́v‚ÆŒ¾‚í‚êAŠÌS‚̍•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚É‘gD“IŠî”Õ‚ðŒ‡‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [10]

‘å‹°Q‚́A‚±‚́uË”\‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚É‚æ‚élŽí–â‘è‰ðŒˆô‚ÌŒ‡Š×‚𖾎¦‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½Buƒn[ƒŒƒ€Eƒ‹ƒlƒTƒ“ƒXv‚É‚ÍNUL‚Ì‹@ŠÖŽOpportunity‚̕ҏWŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚Đ”X‚Ì•¶ŠwƒRƒ“ƒeƒXƒg‚ðŽåÃ‚µ‚Ä‚«‚½ƒ`ƒƒ[ƒ‹ƒYEƒWƒ‡ƒ“ƒ\ƒ“iCharles S. Johnsonj‚́AƒAƒƒŠƒJŒoÏ‚̏󋵂ªˆ«‰»‚̈ê“r‚ð‚½‚Ç‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½1932”N‚ÉŽŸ‚Ì—l‚ɏq‚ׂéB

 

•l‚Ì‹CŽ¿‚Í‹@ŠB‰»‚̉e‹¿‚ª‚à‚½‚ç‚·‘—Ž‚É’ïR‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é‹H‚È“Á«‚ð”õ‚¦A•l‚͐lŽí“Á—L‚̃ŠƒYƒ€‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ÆŠ´ŠS‚É‚Ó‚¯‚邱‚Æ‚Í‚Æ‚«‚Æ‚µ‚Ä–ù‰õ‚È‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½BDDD‚±‚ÌŒƒ‚µ‚¢‹£‘ˆ‚ªŒJ‚èL‚°‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éŽÐ‰ï‚Å‘¶Ý‚µ‘±‚¯‚邽‚ß‚É•K—v‚È‚à‚̂𓾂邱‚Æ‚³‚¦‚Å‚«‚ê‚΁A‚»‚ê‚͈Ԃ݂ɂà‚Ȃ邾‚낤B‚µ‚©‚µAŒ»ŽÀ‚͈á‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB [11]

 

‚³‚ç‚ɁANUL‚ÌŽ·sˆÏˆõ’·ƒŒƒXƒ^[E‚aEƒOƒŒƒ“ƒWƒƒ[iLester B. Grangerj‚ÍŽŸ‚Ì—l‚ɏq‚ׂéB

 

–¾“ú‚ð’S‚¤Žw“±‘w‚́DDD‚Ü‚¸Å‰‚É‘åO‚Ì•ŸŽƒ‚É‹­’²“_‚ð’u‚­BŽáŽÒ‚Ì“¬‘ˆ‚́AŒb‚܂ꂽ­”‚ÌŽÒ‚Ì“ÁŒ ‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A•K—v‚É’Ç‚í‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚鑽‚­‚̐lX‚Ì“÷‚ƃpƒ“‚ׂ̈𒆐S‚ɐ˜‚¦‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚é‚Å‚ ‚낤BEEEEV‚µ‚¢Žw“±‘w‚Í20•ª‚Ì‚P‚ð‘åØ‚Ɉµ‚¢‰ß‚¬AŽc‚è‚ÌŽÒ‚ð‹Q‰ì‚Ɋׂ点‚Ä‚«‚½lŽí‚Ì“NŠw‚ð‹‘”Û‚·‚é‚Å‚ ‚낤B [12] i–T“_A•MŽÒj

 

‚±‚±‚ɁuË”\‚Ì‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚É‚æ‚é‰^“®‚ÌŽž‘ã‚͏I‚í‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

 

‚QjNAACP‚Ì“à•”‘Η§‚ƉüŠv‚̍ÁÜ

‚»‚±‚ŁAŒoÏ–â‘è‚ɑΏˆ‚·‚é•ûŒü‚ɘHü‚ð•ÏX‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ªNAACP‚âNUL‚Ì‹}–±‚̉ۑè‚Æ‚È‚èA‚±‚ê‚ç‚Ì’c‘Ì‚Å‚Í‘gD‰üŠv‚ª–͍õ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B“Á‚ÉNAACP‚̏ꍇAƒXƒRƒbƒcƒ{ƒŽ–Œ‚ð’Ê‚¶A]—ˆ‚͐ê–å‚ÌŠˆ“®—̈æ‚Å‚ ‚élŒ ‚ðŒW‘ˆ“_‚Æ‚µ‚½–@’쓬‘ˆ‚É‚¨‚¢‚ăAƒƒŠƒJ‹¤ŽY“}‚©‚ç‘å‚«‚È’§í‚ðŽó‚¯Aó‹µ‚Í‚æ‚è[‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B [13] ‚»‚±‚ŁANAACP‚́A1933”N‚WŒŽAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Ɖ‚̃Wƒ‡ƒGƒ‹EƒXƒsƒ“ƒK[ƒ“iJoel E. Spingarnj‚Ì’ñ¥‚É‚æ‚èA‚±‚ê‚܂ł̉^“®‚ÌŒ©’¼‚µ‚̈êŠÂ‚Æ‚µ‚āA•lÂ”N‚½‚¿‚̈ӌ©‚ðNAACPŠ²•”‚ª”ñŒöŽ®‚É’®W‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð–Ú“I‚É‚µA‚±‚ê‚܂ł̉^“®‚ÌŒ©’¼‚µ‚ÆNAACP‚̍\‘¢‰üŠv‚ðŒŸ“¢‚·‚邽‚߂ɁA1933”N‚WŒŽAuƒAƒƒjƒA‰ï‹ciAmenia Conferencejv‚ðŠJÃ‚·‚éB [14]

ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚É‚æ‚é‚ƁA‰ï‹cŠJÃ‚ɐ旧‚¿A‹c‘è‚Æ‚µ‚āAi‚PjE‹Æ‚ÆŽû“üiOccupation and IncomejAi‚QjlŽí’c‘́iRacial OrganizationjAi‚RjlŽíŠÔ‹¦—́iInter‑racial CooperationjA‚Ì‚R“_‚ð‚ª’ñŽ¦‚µ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚ªAŽÀÛ‚Ì‹c˜_‚́uŒoÏŠÂ‹«‚ƁA‹³ˆç‚Ɛ­Ž¡‚ªŒoÏ‚É‹y‚Ú‚·‰e‹¿‚Æ‚É‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚ÇŒÀ’肳‚ê‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¢AlŽí’c‘Ì‚Ì“¢‹c‚É‚ÍŽžŠÔ‚ÍŽc‚炸AlŽíŠÔ‹¦—Í‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚Ä‚ÍŽÀŽ¿ã‰½‚Ì’ˆÓ‚à•¥‚í‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½vB [15] ‚‚܂èA‹c˜_‚Í‘å‹°Q‚̉e‹¿‚ð”@ŽÀ‚É”½‰f‚·‚éŒ`‚ÅŒoÏ–â‘è‚ɏW’†‚µ‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‰ï‹c‚ɏW‚Á‚½•lÂ”N‚½‚¿‚́AŽ‘–{Žå‹`ŒoÏ‘̐§Ž©‘Ì‚É‹^–â‚ðŽ‚¿A‰üŠv‚ÌŽå‘Ì‚Æ‚µ‚ĘJ“­‘g‡‚Ɋ֐S‚ðW‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B‚Æ‚±‚낪AƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚̘J“­‰^“®‚ª•l‚ÌŽQ‰Á‚ð‹‘‚Þ‘g‡‚𑽂­•ø‚¦‚éƒAƒƒŠƒJ˜J“­‘“¯–¿iAmerican Federation of LaborAAFLj‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‘ã•\‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éŒÀ‚èA•l‚Ì‘O“r‚͈­Aui–¯Žå“I‰üŠv‚ðŽÀs‚·‚邽‚߂ɂ́jV‚µ‚¢˜J“­‰^“®‚ð’Ê‚¶‚Ä‚Ì‚ÝŠl“¾‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚év‚Ɖï‹c‚͍‡ˆÓ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B‚»‚µ‚āAu•l“à‚ÉŠK‹‰Ši·‚ª‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚悤‚Æ‚àAlŽí‚Ì‚·‚ׂĂ̎҂ª‹¤’Ê‚Ì•ŸŽƒ‚Ì‚½‚߂Ɉê’v’cŒ‹‚µ‚È‚­‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢v‚ƁAŒ‹‹Ç”Þ‚ç‚Í‚±‚̐V‚µ‚¢˜J“­‰^“®‚Ì‘n‘¢‚Ì‚½‚߂ɐlŽí“I•R‘Ñ‚É‚æ‚é’cŒ‹‚ðŽå’£‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [16]

‚±‚̃AƒƒjƒA‰ï‹c‚̍‡ˆÓ“à—e‚́A“–Žž‚̍•l‚ª‚¨‚©‚ꂽó‹µ‚ƍ•l‚Ì–â‘è”FŽ¯‚ð‰s‚­Ž¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ÆŒ¾‚¦‚éBƒƒOƒi[–@§’èˆÈŒãA˜J“­‘g‡‚̎Љï“IE­Ž¡“IŠî”Õ‚ª‚Ü‚·‚Ü‚·”֐΂ɂȂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚­’†‚É‚ ‚Á‚āA•l‚͘J“­‰^“®‚Ì’†‚ɉ½‚Æ‚©’n•à‚ð’z‚±‚¤‚Ɩ͍õ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚Æ‚±‚낪A˜J“­‘g‡‚̐lŽí·•Ê‚ð‘O‚ɐ^‚ÌŠK‹‰“I˜A‡\’z‚Ì‘O“r‚͈­AŒ‹‹Ç‚́AŽ©‚ç‚ÌŽ‹–ì‚ð‚ ‚­‚܂ŐlŽí‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŒÀ’肵‚½ã‚ŁA˜J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚Ì•ø‚¦‚½‰Û‘è‚ɑΏˆ‚·‚é•ûŒü‚ðÌ‚ç‚´‚é‚𓾂Ȃ©‚Á‚½BŒ¾‚í‚΁A”Þ‚ç‚͘J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚Ì—˜‰v—˜ŠQ‚ðAlŽí‚Ì—˜‰v—˜ŠQ‚Ì’Ç‹‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŽå’£‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­•ûŒü‚ðŽw‚µŽ¦‚µ‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

‚»‚µ‚āA—‚1934”N‚É“ü‚é‚â”Û‚âANAACP‚ł́A’c‘Ì‚ÌŠî–{“I‰^“®•ûj‚ð‚ß‚®‚èAŒ‹¬ˆÈ—ˆÅ‚àŒƒ‚µ‚¢ˆÓŒ©‘Η§‚ª•\–ʉ»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B‚»‚Ì”­’[‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚ª1934”N‚PŒŽ‚ÌNAACP‹@ŠÖŽCrisis‚ÉŒfÚ‚³‚ꂽƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚̘_à‚Å‚ ‚éB‚»‚±‚Ńfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚́Au‡O‘‚Ì•ª•Ê‚ ‚鍕l‚ÍŠu—£‚ÌŒ¾—t‚©‚瓦‚°‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢v‚ƐlŽíŠu—£‚Ì‹c˜_‚ðØ‚èo‚·‚µ‚½B”ނ́AŠu—£‚ƍ·•Ê‚Ƃ͈قȂé‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚µAuƒˆ‚Å’Pƒ‚ÈŠu—£‚ɑ΂·‚锽‘΂͌ˆ‚µ‚Ä‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢v‚ÆŽå’£‚·‚éB‚³‚ç‚É—‚‚QŒŽ‚ɂ́Au˜e‚ɍ˜Š|‚¯‚È‚ª‚ç’P‚ɁwŠu—£”½‘΁x‚ÆŽå’£‚·‚é‚Ì‚Í”nŽ­XX‚µ‚¢sˆ×‚Å‚ ‚év‚Əq‚ׁACrisisŽã‚ŐlŽíŠu—£‚ÉŠÖ‚µNAACP“àŠO‚̈ӌ©‚ðŒðŠ·‚·‚éƒtƒH[ƒ‰ƒ€‚̏ê‚ðÝ‚¯‚邱‚Æ‚ð”­•\‚·‚éB [17]

ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚́AuŠu—£”½‘΁v‚ÌŽå’£‚ɂ́Ai‚PjáŠV‚È‚µ‚ɍ•l‚ªŒüã‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‹@‰ï‚ð—v‹‚·‚邱‚ƁAi‚Qj•l‚ÌŽ©•ªŽ©g‚ɑ΂·‚éM—Š‚ÌŠ®‘S‚Ȃ錇”@A‘¼‚̏W’c‚É“¦‚°‹Ž‚낤‚Æ‚·‚éŠè–]A•l“à‚ÌŒoŒ±‚ÌŒ‡”@A‘—ŽA–³’m‚̐ӔC‚ð‰ñ”ð‚µ‚È‚ª‚瑼‚̏W’c‚Ɏ󂯓ü‚ê‚Ä‚à‚炨‚¤‚Æ–]‚Þ‚±‚ƁA‚Ì‚Q‚‚̈Ӗ¡‚ª‚ ‚é‚·‚éB‚»‚±‚ŁA”ނ́AŽŸ‚̂悤‚ȁuŽ©”­“IŠu—£ivoluntary segregationjv‚Ì’ñˆÄ‚ðs‚Á‚½B

 

‰äX‚ɉ”\‚Å‚ ‚芎‚ÂŽÀs‚µ‚È‚­‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢‚±‚ƂƂ́A‚»‚ꂪ”@‰½‚ÉŠu—£‚ðˆÓ–¡‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚àA‰äX‚ÌŒoÏ“IEŽÐ‰ï“I—Í‚ðŽ©”­“I‚ɁA‚»‚µ‚ÄŽ·X‚É‘gD‰»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éBDDDÁ”ïŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚ĉäX‚Ì—Í‚ð‘gD‰»‚µA¶ŽYŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚ẲäX‚Ì—Í‚Æ‹@‰ï‚Æ‚ð—p‚¢A‰äX‚ª‹¦—Í‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚±‚Æ‚ðŠw‚΂Ȃ­‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢B [18]

 

lŽíŠu—£­ô‚Í19¢‹I––‚É“O’ꂳ‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA‚Æ‚è‚킯‚Ä1930”N‘ã‚ɐ[‚È–â‘è‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚«‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢B‚ł́A‰½ŒÌƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Í‚±‚ÌŽž“_‚ŐlŽíŠu—£‚Ì–â‘è‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‹c˜_‚ðŽn‚ß‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚낤‚©Bæ‚ɏq‚ׂ½‚悤‚ɁAƒAƒƒjƒA‰ï‹c‚ł́AV‚µ‚¢˜J“­‰^“®’a¶‚ɑ΂·‚éŠú‘Ò‚ð•\–¾‚·‚éˆê•û‚ŁA•l‚̐lŽí‚ð•R‘Ñ‚Æ‚·‚é˜A‘тƍ•l‚É‚æ‚鎩•“w—Í‚ð‘i‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚±‚̂悤‚Ȑ”N•l‚̐º‚ª‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚ðl‚¦‚é‚È‚ç‚΁Aƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚̐lŽíŠu—£‚̈Ӗ¡‚ð–₤‚Æ‚¢‚¤sˆ×‚́AƒAƒƒjƒA‰ï‹c‚Ì“à—e‚ðŽó‚¯‚Ẵfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚É‚æ‚éNAACP‚̍\‘¢•ÏŠv‚ÌŽŽ‚Ý‚Æ‚µ‚Ä—‰ð‚³‚꓾‚È‚¢‚Å‚ ‚낤‚©B

Ž–ŽÀAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Ì‚±‚̂悤‚È’ñˆÄ‚ɑ΂µAƒAƒƒjƒA‰ï‹cŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚Ì‘½‚­‚ª”Þ‚ðŽxŽ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B—Ⴆ‚΁A‰ï‹c‚Å‚Ì‹c˜_‚ðƒŠ[ƒh‚µ‚½ƒGƒCƒuƒ‰ƒ€EƒnƒŠƒXiAbram Harrisj‚́A1934”N‚PŒŽ‚Ƀfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Ɉ¶‚Ä‚½‘ŠÈ‚Ì’†‚ŁAŽ©”­“IŠu—£‚Ì’ñˆÄ‚É‚æ‚Á‚悶‚½˜_‘ˆ‚ðNAACP“à‚ÌŽw“±Œ ‘ˆ‚¢‚Æ‚µ‚Ä–¾Šm‚É”cˆ¬‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½BƒnƒŠƒX‚́Aƒjƒ…[ƒfƒB[ƒ‹­ôŠJŽnˆÈ—ˆ‚̕ω»‚ðuŽY‹Æ‚ª‰i‹v‚ɃJƒ‹ƒeƒ‹‰»‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­‰ß’öv‚Æ‚µ‚Ä”cˆ¬‚µA‚±‚̉ߒö‚ªis‚·‚é‚ƃAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚́uƒMƒ‹ƒhŽÐ‰ïŽå‹`‰»‚·‚év‚Æ”FŽ¯‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B”Þ‚Í‚Ü‚½A‚±‚̂悤‚ȃAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚̕ω»‚ðŒ»Ý‚Ì•lŽw“±‘w‚ª“IŠm‚É—‰ð‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚炸ANAACPŽ·sˆÏˆõ’·‚ō•l‚̃EƒHƒ‹ƒ^[EƒzƒƒCƒgiWalter F. Whitej‚½‚¿‚́uáŠV‚ƂȂ鉿’lŠÏ‚ðÛ’¥v‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚èA•l’mŽ¯l‚ɐV‚½‚È”FŽ¯‚ð‚³‚¹‚悤‚Æ‚·‚é‚È‚ç‚΁u‰äX‚Í‘½‚­‚̐lŠÔ‚ðiNAACP‚©‚çjƒp[ƒW‚µ‚È‚­‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢‚¾‚낤v‚ƃfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ÉŒê‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚±‚̂悤‚ÉŠù‘¶‚̉^“®‚É•s–ž‚ð•ø‚­ƒnƒŠƒX‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ä•K—v‚Ȃ̂͐V‚½‚ȉ^“®‚Å‚ ‚èAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ɑ΂µu‚à‚µV‚½‚ȉ^“®‚ª¶‚Ü‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚ê‚΁A‚ ‚È‚½ˆÈŠO‚ÉŽw“±ŽÒ‚Í‚¢‚È‚¢v‚ÆNAACP‰üŠv‚̃Š[ƒ_[‚Æ‚È‚é‚悤‚É‹‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [19]

ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ÌŽ©ŽåŠu—£’ñˆÄ”½‘΂̋}æ–N‚É—§‚Á‚½‚Ì‚ªAƒnƒŠƒX‚©‚ç”á”»‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚vEƒzƒƒCƒg‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B”ނ́AŠu—£‚̈Ӗ¡‚ðm’è“I‚É‘¨‚¦’¼‚»‚¤‚Æ‚·‚éƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ɑ΍R‚µ‚āAu•ª—£‚³‚ê‚éó‹µ‚ðŽó‚¯“ü‚ê‚邱‚Ƃ́ADDD‘–¯¶ŠˆAƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒB¶Šˆ‚Ì—¼–ʂɉ—‚¯‚é–¾‚ç‚©‚É—òˆ«‚È’nˆÊ‚Æ—ò“™‚ÈŽ{Ý‚ð”F‚߂邱‚ƂƁA¸_“I‚Ɉޏk‚µ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚év‚ÆŠu—£‚̈Ӗ¡‚ð’è‹`‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚ĔނɂƂÁ‚ẮAuƒKƒ“‚Æ“¯‚¶‚­AŠu—£‚Í‚»‚Ì’›Œó‚ªŒ»‚ꂽ‚ç‚·‚®‚ɐH‚¢Ž~‚ß‚È‚­‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢v‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚³‚ç‚ɔނ́AuNAACP‚Ì—ðŽj“I—§ê‚Í‘n—§ˆÈ—ˆ¡“ú‚ÉŽŠ‚é‚Ü‚ÅŠu—£‚É‚Í”½‘΂µ‘±‚¯AŒöŽ®“I—§ê‚͕“IŠu—£”½‘΂̗§ê‚©‚çˆê•à‚à‘Þ‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚Í‚È‚­vA‚QŒŽ‚ÌCrisis‹LŽ–‚́uƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX”ŽŽm‚̌l“IŒ©‰ð‚ɉ߂¬‚È‚¢v‚Əq‚ׁAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ÌŒ©‰ð‚ɐ^‚ÁŒü‚©‚甽‘΂·‚é˜_w‚𒣂Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B [20]

‚±‚̂悤‚È‹c˜_‚ª“WŠJ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­’†‚ŁAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚̓AƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚É‚Ü‚·‚Ü‚·Œ¶–Å‚ð‹­‚ß‚Äs‚Á‚½BƒzƒƒCƒg‚Ì‹LŽ–‚É“š‚¦‚éŒ`‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‚SŒŽ†‚ÌCrisis‚ŁAu•l‚É‚æ‚é–¾”’‚ȋƐтƍvŒ£‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•ÎŒ©‚ð”j‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é‚ƁAŽ„‚Í”MS‚ɐM‚¶‚Ä‚¢‚½v‚ƉߋŽ‚ÌŽ©•ª‚Ì—§ê‚ðŒê‚èA‚»‚µ‚āu‚±‚ê‚Í‚¨‚Æ‚¬˜b‚Å‚ ‚éA250”N‚©1000”NŒã‚É‚Í’B¬‚Å‚«‚é‚©‚à‚µ‚ê‚È‚¢A‚µ‚©‚µA¡A‚±‚ê‚͐^ŽÀ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢v‚Ɣނ͌»ó‚̐f’f‚ð‰º‚·B‚»‚µ‚āA”Þ‚ªu•l‚ª‚¢‚©‚Ȃ镶‰»A”\—Í‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚悤‚Æ‚àA”’lƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚Ì‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚ǂ͔ށi•lj‚ðlŠÔ‚ÆŒ©‚È‚·‚±‚Æ‚Í‚È‚¢v‚ÆŽå’£‚·‚é‚Æ‚«AuË”\‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚ªƒAƒƒŠƒJ•l‚̐i•à‚ð’S‚¤‚Æ‚·‚é”ÞŽ©g‚ÌŽv‘z‚Ì”j’]‚ðŽ©‚ç“f˜I‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [21]

‚±‚Ì‚Æ‚«‚܂łɃfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚́ANAACPŒöŽ®‹@ŠÖŽ‚Å‚ ‚éCrisis‚ÅNAACP‚Ì•ûj”á”»‚ð“WŠJ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B‹°Q‰º‚É“¯Ž‚ÌŒo‰c‚ª‹}‘¬‚Ɉ«‰»‚µA‚à‚Í‚âNAACP‚Ìà­‰‡•‚È‚µ‚Å‚Í”­s‚𑱂¯‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚È‚­‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚ªACrisis•ÒW’·ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Ì—§ê‚ð‚³‚ç‚Ɉ«‚­‚·‚éB‚‚܂èAŽ©”­“IŠu—£‚̐¥”ñ‚݂̂Ȃ炸Aà­“IŽx‰‡‚ðs‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éNAACP—Ž–‰ï‚ªŽ‚ACrisis‹LŽ–“à—e‚Ì“§Œ –â‘肪‚±‚̘_‘ˆ‚É—‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚³‚ç‚ɁA”’l‚ƊԈႦ‚ç‚ê‚é‚Ù‚Ç”§‚Ì”’‚¢ƒzƒƒCƒg‚ðAu”ނ́w—LFlŽíx‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢A”Þ‚Ì—Fl‚Í—LFlŽí‚æ‚è‚Í”’l‚Ì•û‚ª‘½‚¢v‚ƁAŒö‘R‚Æ”î排†‚ðs‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¢A—¼ŽÒ‚ÌŠmŽ·‚ÍŒˆ’è“I‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B [22]

‚»‚µ‚āA‹c˜_‚ÍŽ©”­“IŠu—£”½‘Δh‚Ì—D¨‚É“WŠJ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­B’c‘Ì‚ÌŽÀŽ¿ã‚ÌŒˆ’茠‚ðˆ¬‚éNAACP—Ž–‰ï‚́A‚SŒŽ‚Ì’è—áW‰ï‚ŁAuŠu—£Œˆ‹cv‚ð‚Ü‚¸Ì‘ð‚µ‚½B‚»‚±‚ł́u‹­—v‚³‚ꂽŠu—£ienforced segregationjv‚ÆŒ¾‚¤•\Œ»‚ŁANAACP‚ÌŠu—£”½‘ÎŽp¨‚ªŠm”F‚³‚ꂽB‘±‚­‚TŒŽ‚Ì—Ž–‰ï‚ł́uŠu—£‚Æ‚Í‚·‚ׂČ³—ˆ‹­—v‚³‚ꂽ‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚év‚Ɖü‚ß‚Ä’è‹`‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ÅŒ‹‰Ê‚Æ‚µ‚ăzƒƒCƒg‚ÌŽp¨‚ð—iŒì‚·‚éˆê•ûANAACP‚̐lŽíŠu—£‚É”½‘΂·‚éŽp¨‚͋ɂ߂čd’¼‚µ‚½‚à‚Ì‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B‚±‚Ì‚Æ‚«‚É‚Í‚³‚ç‚ɁANAACP‚Ì—L‹‹ˆÏˆõ‚ª’c‘Ì‹@ŠÖŽCrisis‚ÅNAACP‚Ì•ûj‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ĕᔻ‚ðs‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ð‹ÖŽ~‚·‚錈‹c‚ªÌ‘ð‚³‚êA–¼Žw‚µ‚Í”ð‚¯‚Â‚Â‚àAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚̍s“®‚ªŒöŽ®‚ɔᔻ‚³‚ꂽ‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ê‚ç‚̈ê˜A‚ÌŒˆ’è‚ÌŒ‹‰ÊA‚‚¢‚Ƀfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Í—Ž–‚ðŽ«”C‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B [23]

ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ÍNAACP‘n—§ŽÒ‚̈êl‚Å‚ ‚èA“–ŽžÅ‚à‰e‹¿—Í‚Ì‚ ‚鍕lŽw“±ŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA”ނ́A‹ï‘Ì“I‚ȃvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€‚ð’ñŽ¦‚·‚邱‚Æ‚È‚­A•l‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ĕےè“I‚Ȋ܈ӂª‘½‚¢uŠu—£v‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾—t‚Ì’è‹`‚©‚ç‰üŠv–â‘è‚ðÌ‚èã‚°‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤•û–@‚ð‚Ƃ邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚āA‚Þ‚µ‚댵‚µ‚¢—§ê‚ɐg‚ð’u‚­‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½B‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA•l‚ÌŒoÏ¶Šˆ‚̈«‰»‚Æ‚¢‚¤Ž–‘Ԃ͈êŒü‚É•Ï‚í‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA‚»‚±‚ÅNAACP‚́Aƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚Ì—Ž–Ž«”C‚ªŒˆ‚Ü‚Á‚½‚VŒŽ‚ɁAƒnƒŠƒX‚ð‹c’·‚Ɂu«—ˆ‚ÌŒv‰æ‚ƃvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚錟“¢ˆÏˆõ‰ïiCommittee on Future Plan and ProgramA’ʏ̃nƒŠƒXˆÏˆõ‰ïjv‚ð‘gD‚µAƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒXŽ«”CŒã‚ÌNAACP‰üŠv‚̓nƒŠƒX‚𒆐S‚ɐi‚ß‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B [24]

ƒnƒŠƒXˆÏˆõ‰ï‚Í10ŒŽ‚É—Ž–‰ï‚É•ñ‘‚ð’ñoAŒ»Ý‚Ì–@’쓬‘ˆ‚Æ‹c‰ïƒƒr[Šˆ“®‚Ì‘¼‚ÉNAACP‚ª«—ˆŽÀs‚·‚ׂ«Ž{ô‚Æ‚µ‚āAi‚Pj”’l˜J“­ŽÒ‚Æ‚Ì—˜ŠQ‚̈ê’v‚ð‹³ˆç‚·‚é˜J“­ŽÒ‹³ˆç‚ðs‚¤‚±‚ƁAi‚QjŽY‹Æ•ÊŒ`‘Ԃ̘J“­‰^“®‚ðˆç‚Ă邱‚ƁAi‚RjØ”—‚µ‚½–â‘è‚ɑΏˆ‚·‚é—§–@‚ðŠm•Û‚·‚邽‚ß‚É”’l˜J“­ŽÒ‚ƍ•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚Ì“ˆê“I­Ž¡“Is“®‚ÉŒü‚¯‚Ä’m“IŠî”Ղ𐮔õ‚·‚邱‚ƁAi‚Sj‘S‘“I‚Ü‚½’nˆæ“I‚ȘJ“­ŽÒ‰ï‹ciWorkers' Councilj‚Ì‘nÝ‚ðŽx‚¦‚邱‚ƁAi‚Tj˜J“­‰^“®‚̍•l·•Ê‚É”½‘΂·‚é‰^“®‚ÌŒ`¬Ai‚Uj•ª—£“I‚ȍ•lŒoÏ‚É‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢Œ`‚Å‚Ì‹¦“¯‘g‡‰^“®‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä‹³ˆçŠˆ“®‚ðs‚¤‚±‚ƁAi‚VjŽx•”‚ð’n•ûABA˜A–M‚ð•‘‘ä‚Æ‚·‚鐭Ž¡s“®‚̃Zƒ“ƒ^[‚Æ‚·‚邱‚ƁA‚ð’ñˆÄ‚µ‚½BŽ©”­“IŠu—£˜_‘ˆ‚𓥂܂¦‚½ã‚ł̃nƒŠƒXˆÏˆõ‰ï‚Ì’ñˆÄ‚́Aã‚ÉŒ©‚é’Ê‚èlŽí‰¡’f“I«Ši‚ðŽ‚Â‚à‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªAÅ“_‚́uË”\‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚Ì’c‘ÌNAACP‚ÌŠˆ“®‚ɍ•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚ÌŽQ‰Á‚ð•å‚邱‚Æ‚É‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚Ì‚½‚ß‚Ì“¯ˆÏˆõ‰ï’ñˆÄ‚ÌŠjS‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚ªAŒoÏŠˆ“®Ž–âˆÏˆõ‰ïiAdvisory Committee on Economic Activitiesj‚ƁA•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚É”­Œ¾‚̏ê‚ð—^‚¦‚é˜J“­ŽÒ‰ï‹c‚Ì‘nÝ‚Å‚ ‚éB [25]

‚±‚Ì•ñ‚Ì’ñˆÄ‚ɂ‚¢‚āA—Ž–‰ï‚Í‚¨‚æ‚»‚P”N‚ɂ킽‚Á‚Ä“¢‹c‚ðd‚ˁA‚»‚Ì’†‚Ő”X‚̏C³‚ðƒnƒŠƒXˆÄ‚ɉÁ‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B“–‰’ñˆÄ‚³‚ꂽŒoÏŠˆ“®Ž–âˆÏˆõ‰ï‚́AˆÏˆõ’·‚݂̂𗝎–‰ï‚ª”C–½‚µA\¬ˆÏˆõ‚͈ψõ’·‚ªŽw–¼‚µ—Ž–‰ï‚̏³”F‚𓾂ĔC–½‚·‚é‚Æ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚邪A—Ž–‰ï‚ªˆêØ‚̈ψõlŽ–Œ ‚𗯕ۂ·‚邱‚ƂɕύX‚³‚ꂽB [26] ‚‚܂èA—Ž–‰ï‚©‚甼‚ΓƗ§‚µ‚½Œ`‚Å‘¶Ý‚·‚鎐–âˆÏˆõ‰ï‚𒆐S‚ɁA•K‚¸‚µ‚à‰üŠv‚É‘OŒü‚«‚Æ‚ÍŽv‚¦‚È‚¢—Ž–‰ï‚ɏW’†‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚錠—Í‚Ì•ªŽU‚ðƒnƒŠƒXˆÄ‚ÍŠé}‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªA‚»‚Ì—Ž–‰ï‚ÌŒ ŒÀ‚ª’¼ÚŽ–âˆÏˆõ‰ï‚É‹y‚Ô‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚³‚ç‚ɁA•l‘åO‚ÌNAACP‚Ö‚ÌŽQ‰Á‚ð•å‚èAŽx•”Šˆ“®‚ðŠˆ«‰»‚·‚é’†S‚Æ‚È‚é˜J“­ŽÒ‰ï‹c‚̐ݗ§’ñˆÄ‚͍폜‚³‚êAÅI“I‚É—Ž–‰ï‚ɏ³”F‚³‚ꂽ•ñ‚́AŒoÏ–â‘è‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ÄŒ¾Ž«ã‚̊֐S‚𕥂¤‚à‚̂́AƒnƒŠƒX•ñ‚ª“–‰ˆÓ}‚µ‚½ŽÀs‘gD‚ðŒ‡‚­‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚ÌŒ‹‰ÊAƒnƒŠƒX‚͍R‹c‚̈ӎv•\Ž¦‚Æ‚µ‚Ä—Ž–‚ðŽ«”C‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB [27] ‚±‚ê‚É‚æ‚Á‚āA˜J“­ŽÒŽQ‰Á‚Ì‘£i‚ð–Ú•W‚É‚µ‚½NAACP‚̉üŠv‚͓ڍÁ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B

 

‚RjƒiƒVƒ‡ƒiƒ‹EƒjƒOƒEƒRƒ“ƒOƒŒƒXiNational Negro CongressANNCj‚ƃ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì“oê

ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ªNAACP‚ð‘Þ‚«‰^“®‚Ì’c‘Ì“IŠî”Õ‚ðŽ¸‚¤‚Ì‚Æ‚Ù‚Ú“¯Žž‚ɁA•lŽw“±‘w‚Ì’‡ŠÔ“ü‚è‚ð‰Ê‚½‚·‚Ì‚ªƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ê‚܂ł̍•l‚̉^“®‚Ì’†S‚É—§‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½ŽÒ‚́A•l‹³‰ï‚⍕l‘åŠw‚ÌŠÖŒWŽÒA‚Ü‚½‚Í–@‘‚ŠEogŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚Æ‚±‚낪Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ÌŽxŽŠî”Ղ́Aƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚Ì‘g‡‚Å‚ ‚èA˜J“­‰^“®og‚Æ‚¢‚¤•lŽw“±‘w‚Ì’†‚Å‚Í‹É‚ß‚Ä‹H‚ÈŒo—ð‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚»‚êŒÌ‚ɁA‚±‚ê‚Ü‚Å‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚́A‚©‚©‚é˜J“­‰^“®‰Æ‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̔ނ̌o—ð‚ƁAƒƒVƒAŠv–½‚̏܎^‚܂ōs‚Á‚½ƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹‚ÈŽGŽMessenger‚̕ҏWŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚±‚ƁA‚³‚ç‚ɂ̓AƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï“}ˆõ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚±‚Æ‚©‚çA•l‚Ì–â‘è‚ðŠî–{“I‚ÉŠK‹‰‚Ì–â‘è‚Æ‚µ‚Ä”FŽ¯‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éŽw“±ŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚Ì”FŽ¯‚É‚½‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB [28] ‚Æ‚±‚낪Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ª‘gD‰»‚ðŽw“±‚µ‚½Q‘äŽÔƒ|[ƒ^[Eƒuƒ‰ƒU[ƒtƒbƒhiBrotherhood of Sleeping Car PortersABSCPj‚́A˜J“­‘g‡‚Æ嫂àAˆê”ʂ̘J“­‘g‡‚Ƃ͈قȂÁ‚½“ÁF‚ðŽ‚¿‡‚킹‚Ä‚¢‚½BBSCP‚̍őå‚Ì“ÁF‚Ƃ͍•l‚̐lŽíˆÓŽ¯‚È‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

‚Æ‚±‚ë‚ŁAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªuƒƒbƒZƒ“ƒWƒƒ[Eƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹v‚Æ‘Ì‚³‚ꂽW’c‚Ì’†S‚É—§‚¿AuƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚ōłàŠëŒ¯‚ȍ•lv‚Æ‚³ŒÄ‚΂ê‚Ä‚¢‚½1920”N‘㏉“ª‚Ƃ́A‰p—̐¼ƒCƒ“ƒhog‚̍•lƒ}[ƒJƒXEƒK[ƒ”ƒBiMarcus Garveyj—¦‚¢‚鐢ŠE•l‰ü‘P‹¦‰ïiUniversal Negro Improvement AssociationAUNIAj‚ªƒAƒƒŠƒJ•l‚ÌŠÔ‚Å‹}‘¬‚ÉŽxŽ‚ðW‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½Žž‘ã‚Å‚à‚ ‚éB‚±‚̃K[ƒ”ƒB‚ƃ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ðŒ©‚é‚ƁAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ª‹’‚Á‚Ä—§‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚à‚̂Ƃ́A•K‚¸‚µ‚àŠK‹‰“Iƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒŠƒYƒ€‚¾‚¯‚Æ‚ÍŒÀ‚ç‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

‚±‚Ì“–Žž‚̃‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A‘æ‚PŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí’†‚ɐ푈­ô‚ðŽxŽ‚·‚邽‚߂ɍ•l‚̍R‹c‰^“®‚ðˆêŽž’†Ž~‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð‹‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚çŠù‘¶‚̍•lŽw“±‘w”á”»‚Ì‹}æ–N‚É—§‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½BíŒãAí‘ˆ‚ւ̍vŒ£‚É‚àŠÖ‚í‚炸•l‚Ì‹«‹öE’nˆÊ‚ª–Ú—§‚Á‚ĉü‘P‚³‚ê‚È‚¢’†AÂ”N•l‚𒆐S‚Ƀfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ɑ΂·‚é”á”»‚ª‚‚Ü‚èA‚»‚̔ᔻ¨—Í‚Ì’†S‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚ªƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ƁA‚»‚µ‚ăK[ƒ”ƒB‚¾‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [29]

ƒ}[ƒJƒXEƒK[ƒ”ƒB‚ÆŒ¾‚¦‚΁AuƒAƒtƒŠƒJ‚Ö‹A‚êv‚̃Xƒ[ƒKƒ“‚Æ‚Æ‚à‚ɁA•l‚̐lŽí“I’cŒ‹‚ð‘i‚¦‚©‚¯‚½ƒuƒ‰ƒbƒNEƒiƒVƒ‡ƒiƒŠƒXƒg‚Æ‚µ‚Ä—L–¼‚Å‚ ‚éB‚µ‚©‚µA”Þ‚ª‘æ‚PŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí‹xí’¼Œã‚Ƀjƒ…[ƒˆ[ƒN‚ÅŒ‹¬‚µ‚½UNIA‚ɏW‚Ü‚Á‚½l•¨‚ðŒ©‚é‚ƁAƒAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï“}‚âƒAƒƒŠƒJ‹¤ŽY“}‚̍•lŠˆ“®‰Æ‚ª”‘½‚­‘¶Ý‚µA‚»‚Ì’†‚ɂ́uƒƒbƒZƒ“ƒWƒƒ[Eƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹v‚à–¼‚ð˜A‚Ë‚Ä‚¢‚½B [30] uƒƒbƒZƒ“ƒWƒƒ[Eƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹v‚ƃK[ƒ”ƒBŽå‹`ŽÒ‚Æ‚ðŒ‹‚Ñ‚Â‚¯‚½Å‘å‚Ì‘ˆ“_‚ªƒAƒtƒŠƒJ‚̐íŒãˆ—–â‘è‚Å‚ ‚èA“–ŽžA”Þ‚ç‚͔ăAƒtƒŠƒJƒ“‰ï‹c(Pan-African Congress)‚Ì’†S‚É—§‚‚ƂƂà‚ɃAƒƒŠƒJ‘–±È‚ÌŽgß’c‚Æ‚µ‚ăpƒŠ‚ɍs‚­‚±‚Æ‚ªŒˆ‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ɑ΍RA”Þ‚ç“ÆŽ©‚́AƒAƒtƒŠƒJ‚̐íŒãˆ—–â‘è‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚µ‚āA•l‚Ì‘ã‹c’c‚ðƒpƒŠ˜a•½‰ï‹c‚É”hŒ­‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð–Ú“I‚É‹¤‚ÉŠˆ“®‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½Bˆê•ûAƒAƒƒŠƒJ­•{‚́A•p”ɂɁuŠv–½v‚ðŒû‚É‚µANAACP‚È‚Ç‚Æ”äŠr‚·‚é‚Æ–¾‚ç‚©‚É”½‘̐§”½­•{“I‚ÈŽå’£‚ª–Ú—§‚”ނç‚ðAƒAƒƒŠƒJ­•{‚́Aˆê‚‚̏W’c‚É‘®‚·‚锽­•{Šˆ“®‰Æ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŠÄŽ‹‰º‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚±‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ­•{‚̍s“®‚ð‚ð•l“à•”‚̈ӌ©‚Ì‘Šˆá‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é–³’mE–³ŠÖS‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚±‚Æ‚Ì”½‰f‚Æ‚Í‚Í•K‚¸‚µ‚à‰ðŽß‚Å‚«‚È‚¢B‚¸A”Þ‚ç‚Í‹Œ—ˆ‚̍•lŽw“±‘w‚ɔᔻ“I‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤“_‚Å—§ê‚𓯂¶‚­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA­•{’³•ñˆõ‚́ui”Þ‚ç‚ÌŠˆ“®‚́j‚æ‚è•ÛŽç“I‚ȃŠ[ƒ_[‚©‚烉ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹‚ȃ^ƒCƒv‚Ö‚ÌŽw“±‘w‚̈ڍs‚ðŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚év‚Æ‚·‚é•ñ‚Í‚ ‚é–Ê‚Å‚ÌŽ–ŽÀ‚ð“`‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ÆŽv‚í‚ê‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [31]

‚»‚̔ނç“ñl‚̉^“®Žv‘z‚É’Ê‹Å‚·‚é“_‚Å‚ ‚è‚È‚¨ŠŽ‚Šù‘¶‚̍•lŽw“±‘w‚Ƃ͈قȂé“_‚ªA­•{’³•ñˆõ‚̖ڂɂ́uƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹v‚Ɖf‚Á‚½“_‚ªA•l‚É‚æ‚éˆÓŽvŒˆ’è‚ðd—vŽ‹‚·‚é“_‚Å‚ ‚éB•l‚ª—vE‚ðè‚ß‚éŠÂ‹«‚ª•sŽ©‘R‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‰p—̐¼ƒCƒ“ƒh‚ňç‚Á‚½ƒK[ƒ”ƒB‚́ANAACP–{•”‚ð‰‚ß‚Ä–K‚ꂽ‚Æ‚«ANAACP‚Ì—vE‚Ì‘½‚­‚ª”’l‚É‚æ‚Á‚Đè‚ß‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚É‹­‚¢ŒË˜f‚¢‚ðŠ´‚¶‚Ä‚¢‚½B [32] ‘¼•ûAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́ANAACP‚ð”á”»‚µ‚ÄŽŸ‚̂悤‚ɏq‚ׂĂ¢‚½B

 

•l‚Å‚à˜J“­ŽÒ‚Å‚à‚È‚¢lŠÔ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄNAACP‚ÍŽx”z‚³‚êƒRƒ“ƒgƒ[ƒ‹‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚»‚êŒÌ‚ɁANAACP‚ªlŽí‚Ì‘ã•ÙŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚āA‚»‚µ‚Ĉ̑å‚ȘJ“­ŽÒ‚̈êˆõ‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽÐ‰ï“IE­Ž¡“IEŒoÏ“IŠQˆ«‚Ì‹]µ‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éW’c‚Ì–]‚Ý‚ðŒê‚邱‚Æ‚Í‘S‚­‚à‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ä•s‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚éB [33]

 

‚‚܂èA“–Žž‚̍•lƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹‚ÌŽv‘z‚ðŒ©‚é‚ƁAŠK‹‰“Iƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒŠƒYƒ€‚ƐlŽí“Iƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒŠƒYƒ€‚̊Ԃɍۂ¾‚Á‚½‹«ŠEü‚Í‘¶Ý‚¹‚¸A‚Þ‚µ‚ë—¼ŽÒ‚ªŸÓ‘Rˆê‘Ì‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½Œ`‚Å“¯‹‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚ÆŽw“E‚Å‚«‚éBã‚ÉŒ©‚é‚Æ‚¨‚èA“Á‚Ƀ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚̏ꍇ‚Í‚»‚ÌŒXŒü‚ª‹­‚¢B‚»‚µ‚Ĕނ́AƒK[ƒ”ƒB‚É‚æ‚鍕l‚ÌŽ©•‰^“®‚ª‘å‚«‚ȃZƒ“ƒZ[ƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚ðŠª‚«‹N‚±‚µA‹ó‘O‚̍•l‘åO‰^“®‚ð“WŠJ‚µ‚½ŽžŠú‚ɁAƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚ð‘gD‰»‰^“®‚ðŽw“±‚·‚é‚悤‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [34]

‚Æ‚±‚ë‚Ńvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚Æ‚Í‚¢‚©‚È‚éE‚È‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚낤‚©Bƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ŽÐ‚Í19¢‹IŒã”¼‚ɐQ‘äŽÔ‹Æ–±‚ðŽè‚ª‚¯‚邱‚Æ‚Å‹Æ–±‚ðŠg‘債A‚±‚Ì“–Žž‚É‚Í‘S•Ä‚̐Q‘äŽÔ‚ð‚قړƐ肵‚Ä‚¢‚½B [35] Q‘äŽÔ‚̏æ‹q‚ÉŽfŒó‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ªŽå‚È‹Æ–±‚Å‚ ‚éƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚̐E‚Í“S“¹˜J“­ŽÒ‚ÆŒ¾‚¤‚æ‚è‚àƒzƒeƒ‹˜J“­ŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ì—v‘f‚ª‹­‚­A“S“¹ŽY‹Æ‚Ì‘¼‚̐EŽí‚ª”’l‚ª“Ɛ肵‚Ä‚¢‚é‚̂ɑ΂µAƒ|[ƒ^[‚̐E‚Ì‚Ý‚ª•l‚̂قړƐèE‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B [36] ‚»‚µ‚āA‚±‚̂悤‚È‚±‚Æ‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚½”wŒi‚ɂ́A“z—ꐧ‚̃vƒ‰ƒ“ƒe[ƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚É‹NŒ¹‚ðŽ‚¿A•l‚ð—L”\‚ȏ¢Žg‚¢‚Å‚ ‚é‚ÆŒ©‚È‚·ƒXƒeƒŒƒIƒ^ƒCƒv‰»‚³‚ꂽƒCƒ[ƒW‚ª‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB’†‚ɂ́Aƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“‰ïŽÐ‚Ì‘nŽnŽÒƒWƒ‡[ƒWEƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“‚ª•l‚ðŒÙ—p‚µ‚½‚±‚Æ‚Ì——R‚̓Šƒ“ƒJ[ƒ“‘哝—Ì‚ªƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“‚ɍ•l‰ð•ú–¯‚̌ٗp‚ðŠ©‚ß‚½‚Ì‚¾‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰\‚Ü‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤B [37] ‚‚܂èA‘gD‰»‰^“®‚ªŽn‚Ü‚Á‚½Žž“_‚ŁAƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚̐EŽí‚Ƃ͐lŽíŠu—£‚³‚ꂽE‚É‘¼‚È‚ç‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾B‚»‚µ‚ă‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Í‚ªAuƒWƒ‡[ƒWv‚ÆŒ¾‚¤ƒXƒeƒŒƒIEƒ^ƒCƒv‰»‚³‚ꂽŒÄ‚Ñ–¼‚ðŽ‚Âƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚ð‘gD‰»‚·‚éÛ‚ɁA“TŒ^“I‚É‚ÍŽŸ‚̂悤‚ÈŒ¾—t‚ŁAƒ|[ƒ^[’B‚ð‘gD‰»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B

 

‚¨‘O‚ª‚‚¢lŽí“I’cŒ‹‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðŒ©‚¹‚é‚Ì‚¾B‰äX‚ª‚Ç‚±‚©‚ç—ˆ‚悤‚ƁA‰äX‚É‚Í‹¤’ʂ̈âŽYA‹¤’Ê‚ÌŒ¹A‹¤’Ê‚Ì—˜ŠQA‹¤’Ê‚Ì“G‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB¡ˆê“xA‚¨‘O‚ª¸_AƒKƒbƒcA“Æ—§S‚ƁAlŠÔ‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̏\‘S«imanhoodj‚ÆŽ©—Rl‚É‚È‚éˆÓŽu‚Æ‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚·‚Ì‚¾B [38]

 

‚±‚±‚ŁAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªmanhood‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾—t‚ð—p‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚Í‹»–¡[‚¢BƒXƒeƒŒƒIƒ^ƒCƒv‰»‚³‚ꂽ•l‚̃Cƒ[ƒWuƒTƒ“ƒ{v‚́A•l‚ðu‰R‚‚«‚Ő¸_“I‚É‚ÍŽq‹Ÿ‚Å‚ ‚év‚ÆŒ©‚È‚·Bƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚±‚̃Cƒ[ƒW‚ð”j‰ó‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ðˆÓ}‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [39] ‚‚܂èABSCP‚Ƃ́A’ʏí‚̘J“­‘g‡‚Ƃ͈قȂèAlŽíŽå‹`“IƒXƒeƒŒƒIƒ^ƒCƒv‚ð”j‰ó‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚·‚鍕l‚̐lŽíˆÓŽ¯‚ð•R‘Ñ‚Æ‚µ‚½’c‘Ì‚¾‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBlŽíŠu—£‚³‚ꂽE‹Æ‚ðŠî”Õ‚É‚µ‚‚‚àAE‹Æ‚ªŽ‚ƒXƒeƒŒƒIƒ^ƒCƒv‚ɉʊ¸‚É’§‚݁A•lƒ|[ƒ^[‚̘A‘т̏ê‚ð‚‚­‚èo‚»‚¤‚Æ‚·‚éBSCP‚Ƃ́Aƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX‚ªŒê‚Á‚½uŽ©”­“IŠu—£v‚ðŽÀ‘H‚µ‚½’c‘Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Æ“Á’¥‚¯‚錾‚¤‚±‚Æ‚à‚Å‚«‚éB [40]

‚±‚̂悤‚È‘gD“IŠî”Õ‚ðŽ‚Âƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́AAFL“à•”‚Å‚àA yƒJƒ‰[Eƒuƒ‰ƒCƒ“ƒhz˜J“­ŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Å‚Í‚È‚­Aˆê‹`“I‚ɂ͍•l‚Æ‚µ‚čs“®‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B”ނ́A”’l˜J“­ŽÒ‚ƍ•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚Ì—˜ŠQ‚͈قȂèA‚»‚êŒÌA•l‚ɂ͍•l‚Ì‘gD‚ª•K—v‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚ÌŒ©’n‚É—§‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB—Ⴆ‚΁ABSCP‚́A”’l‚É‘g‡ˆõ‚ðŒÀ’肵‚½˜J“­‘g‡AQ‘äŽÔŽÔ¶‘g‡iOrder of Sleeping Car ConductorsAOSCCj‚©‚獇•¹‚Ì’ñˆÄ‚ðŽó‚¯‚½‚±‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚éB‚©‚‚Ă͎Y‹Æ•Ê˜J“­‘g‡‚ð”M—ó‚ÉŽxŽ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A‚µ‚©‚µA”’l‚Ì‘g‡‚ɍ‡•¹‚³‚ê‚邱‚Ƃ͍•lƒ|[ƒ^[‚Ì—˜‰v‚ª‘¹‚È‚í‚ê‚é‚ƍl‚¦AŽY•Ê˜Hü‚É“Y‚Á‚½Œ`‚ł̍‡•¹’ñˆÄ‚ð‹‘”Û‚µ‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚±‚Ì‚Æ‚«‚Ƀ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Í‚±‚ê‚܂ō•l‚ð‘g‡‚©‚ç”rœ‚µ‚Ä‚«‚½OSCC‚ªuƒ|[ƒ^[‚ðˆêl‚Å‚à‘gD‰»‚Å‚«‚é‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‰ö‚µ‚¢‚à‚Ì‚¾v‚Æ”­Œ¾‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邪A‚±‚ê‚́uŽÐ‰ïŽå‹`ŽÒvƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Æ嫂àAŠK‹‰“I˜A‘т̉”\«‚𖳔ᔻ‚ɐM‚¶‚Ä‚Í‚¨‚炸A•l‚Æ”’l‚̘J“­ŽÒ‚ÌŠÔ‚É‚Í–„‚ߐs‚­‚µ“ï‚¢•sM‚̍a‚ª‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ð‘O’ñ‚Æ‚µ‚čs“®‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB [41]

1930”N‘ã’†—tA19¢‹I––‚Ì‘åƒXƒgƒ‰ƒCƒL‚ð‹­—Í‚Å•²Ó‚µ‚½—ðŽj‚ðŽ‚¿”½‘gD˜J“­‚ÌŽp¨‚Å‚Í—L–¼‚ȃvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“EƒJƒ“ƒpƒj[‚Æ‚Ì‘ˆ‹c‚ɏŸ—˜‚µ‚½ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A“–ŽžA‚©‚©‚鍕l‚̐lŽíˆÓŽ¯‚ðˆê‚‚̕R‘Ñ‚Æ‚µ‚½‘g‡‚ðŠî”ՂɁAAFL“à•”‚Å“ÆŽ©‚Ì’n•à‚ð’z‚«‚‚‚ ‚Á‚½BAFL‚Ì‘¤‚Å‚àAŠîŠ²ŽY‹Æ‚̍•l‚Ì‘gD‰»‚ðÏ‹É“I‚ɉŸ‚µi‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½ŽY‹Æ•Ê‘gD‰ï‹ciCongress of Industrial Organization, CIOj‚ƘJ“­‰^“®‚ÌŒƒ‚µ‚¢”eŒ ‘ˆ‚¢‚ðŒJ‚èL‚°‚Ä‚¢‚é’†ABSCP‚Ì‘¶Ý‚͍•lŽÐ‰ï‚ƑΘb‚ðs‚¤ã‚Å‹Md‚È‘¶Ý‚Å‚ ‚èAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ÍAFL“à•”‚É‚¨‚¢‚Đ헪“I‚ɏd—v‚È’nˆÊ‚ð‹Žó‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [42] ‚»‚µ‚Ä1934”NAFL”NŽŸ‘å‰ï‚ŁA”ނ́A•l‚ð·•Ê‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‘g‡‚ðAFL‚©‚ç’Ç•ú‚·‚邱‚Ƃƍ•l‚̈µ‚¢‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’²¸ˆÏˆõ‰ï‚̐ݒu‚ð—v‹‚·‚鏊ˆàuƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒtŒˆ‹cv‚̍̑ð‚ð—v‹‚µAŒˆ‚µ‚ĐlŽí•½“™“I‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢AFL‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚Ì‘ã•ÙŽÒ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŠˆ“®‚ðŠJŽn‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B [43] ˆê•ûA‚¿‚傤‚Ç‚±‚Ì‚Æ‚«‚Ì‘å‰ïXê‚ÌŽü•Ó‚ł́A˜J“­‘g‡‚̐lŽí·•Ê‚É”½‘΂·‚éR‹cƒsƒP‚ªŽÀs‚³‚êA˜J“­‰^“®‰Æƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ö‚ÌŠú‘Ò‚ÆŽxŽ‚ªA•lƒ|[ƒ^[‚ð‰z‚¦‚čL‚ª‚è‚‚‚ ‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [44]

ƒnƒ[ƒh‘åŠwŽÐ‰ïŠw•”‚ÆJCNR‚ªA1935”N‚TŒŽA•l‚Ì’¼–Ê‚·‚é–â‘è‚ɑΏˆ‚·‚邽‚߂̏î•ñŒðŠ·‚ðs‚¤‰ï‹c‚ðƒƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“‚cE‚b‚ÅŠJÃ‚µ‚½‚̂́A‚±‚̂悤‚ÈŽž“_‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚±‚ê‚ð‹@‰ï‚ɁAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªƒ|[ƒ^[‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒ‚©‚獕l‘åO‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒ‚É‚È‚é•‘‘䂪€”õ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­B‚±‚̉ï‹c‚ŁANAACP‚ð‘Þ‚¢‚½ƒGƒCƒuƒ‰ƒ€EƒnƒŠƒX‚âJCNR‚̃Wƒ‡ƒ“E‚oEƒfƒCƒ”ƒBƒX‚çŽQ‰ÁŽÒˆê“¯‚͍•l”’c‘Ì‚Ì“ˆêíü‚Ì•K—v«‚ðˆê’v‚µ‚Ä”FŽ¯‚µA‰ï‹cI—¹Œãƒ‰ƒ‹ƒtEƒoƒ“ƒ`iRalph J. Bunchj`”Þ‚àƒAƒƒjƒA‰ï‹c‚ÌŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½`‚Ì“@‘î‚ÅŠJ‚©‚ꂽ‰ï’k‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä“ˆêíü\’z‚ÉŒü‚¯‚½ì‹Æ•”‰ï‚ªÝ—§‚³‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B‚»‚µ‚Ä1936”N‚QŒŽ14“úAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ð‰ï’·ipresidentjAJCNR‚̃fƒCƒ”ƒBƒX‚ðŽ·sˆÏˆõ’·iexecutive secretaryj‚ɁAŠù‘¶’c‘̘̂A‡‘gD‚Æ‚µ‚ÄNNC‚ª”­‘«‚·‚é‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚½B‚±‚Ì‘å‰ï‚́A•l‹³‰ï‚©‚çƒAƒƒŠƒJ‹¤ŽY“}ˆõ‚Ü‚Å‚ð‹Š‡‚µAŽQ‰Á’c‘̂̃ƒ“ƒo[ƒVƒbƒv‚̍‡Œv‚Í120–œl‚É‚Ì‚Ú‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚±‚Ì‘n—§‘å‰ï‚̐¬Œ÷‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄNNC‚́uƒK[ƒ”ƒB‰^“®ˆÈ—ˆÅ‘å‚̍•l‘åO‰^“®‚Ì’a¶v‚ÆŒ©‚ç‚ꂽ‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [45]

‚±‚±‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚āAÂ”N•l‚©‚琄‹“‚³‚ê‚éŒ`‚щƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªNNC‰ï’·‚ɏA”C‚µ‚½‚±‚Ƃ́A•l‰^“®“à•”A‚Æ‚è‚킯1930”N‘ã‚ɑ䓪‚µ‚Ä‚«‚½‘w‚ł̔ނ̒nˆÊ‚ÌŠm—§‚𕨌ê‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚»‚µ‚āA•l‚ÌŽ©•“w—Í‚âlŽíˆÓŽ¯‚É‹­‚­‘i‚¦‚©‚¯‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Eƒ|[ƒ^[‚Ì‘gD‰»‰^“®‚̃‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ÌŽp¨‚́AƒAƒƒjƒA‰ï‹c‚ł̐”N•l‚ÌŽ©•“w—Í‚ð‹‚ß‚éŽå’£‚Æ•„‡‚µANNC‚ÖŒ‹ŽÀ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ÍNNC‰ï’·A”C‰‰à‚ÅŒê‚éB

 

•l‚Ì‹~Ï‚́A˜J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚Æ“¯‚¶‚­AÅI“I‚ɂ͍•lŽ©g‚Ì’†‚©‚çŒ`¬‚³‚ê‚È‚­‚Ä‚Í‚È‚ç‚È‚¢B [46]

 

‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA‚»‚à‚»‚àNNC‚̂悤‚È’c‘Ì‚ªV‚½‚É•K—v‚Æ‚³‚ꂽ‚̂́A‚Þ‚µ‚ëNAACP‚È‚ÇŠù‘¶‚Ì’c‘Ì‚ª•l˜J“­ŽÒ‘åO‚Ì“®ˆõ‚ÉŽ¸”s‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚Ì”½‰f‚Å‚ ‚é‚ƍl‚¦‚˂΂Ȃé‚Ü‚¢B‚±‚Ì“_‚́AAFL‚©‚ç’E‘Þ‚·‚éŒ`‚Å’a¶‚µ‚½ŽY‹Æ•Ê‘gD‰ï‹ciCongress of Industrial OrganizationACIOj‚ªA‚»‚ÌŒãA•ÛŽç“I‚ÆŒ©‚È‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½AFL‚Ì“à•”‰üŠv‚𑣂µA“ñ‚‚̑gD‚ªŒƒ‚µ‚­”eŒ ‚𑈂¤’†‚Å‚©‚‚ĂȂ¢‚܂łɍV—g‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½˜J“­‰^“®‚Ƃ́A‚Ü‚½‚µ‚Ä‚à‘N–¾‚ȑΏƂð‚È‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB [47] ‚‚܂èANNC‚͍•l‚̉^“®‚ªŠˆ«‰»‚µ‚½Œ‹‰Ê‚Å‚Í‚ ‚蓾‚¸A‚¾‚©‚炱‚»Šù‘¶‚Ì’c‘Ì‚Ì‚Þ‚µ‚ëŽü‰‚Ɉʒu‚µ‚È‚ª‚ç‚à‘gD˜J“­‚ÉŠî”Õ‚ðŽ‚ÂBSCP‰ï’·ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªNNC‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒ‚É‘I‚΂ꂽ‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

‚±‚ÌŽ–î‚ð‰f‚µo‚·‚悤‚ɁANNC‚ÍŒ‹¬‘å‰ïˆÈ~•l’c‘Ì‚ª‹}‘¬‚É‘«•À‚݂𗐂µAŒ‹‹Ç‹ï‘Ì“I¬‰Ê–R‚µ‚­Š‘Þ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB‚Ü‚¸‚́A­Ž¡‚ÆŒoÏ‚Ì–â‘è‚ɍS“D‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ð”á”»Þ—¿‚ɁA‚Ü‚¸‚͍•l‹³‰ï‚ªNNC‚ð’E‘Þ‚µA‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚èA‘±‚¢‚ĘJ“­‰^“®‚̈Ӌ`‚ð‹­’²‚µ‰ß‚¬‚é‚ƍ•lŽÀ‹Æ‰Æ’c‘Ì‚ª’E‘Þ‚µ‚čs‚Á‚½Bˆê•ûA“–‰ŽQ‰Á‚ªŠú‘Ò‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½NAACP‚́A1935”N12ŒŽ‚Ì’è—ᗝŽ–‰ï‚ŁANNCŒ‹¬‘å‰ï‚ւ̏µ‘҂ɑ΂µA“ˆêíü‚̍\’z’ñˆÄŽ©‘Ì‚ªuŽæ‚é‚É‘«‚ç‚È‚¢v‚Æ‚µ‚‚ANNC‚ÌŒ‹¬‚Ì–Ú“I‚ªu•s–¾Šm‚Å‚ ‚év‚ƃfƒCƒ”ƒBƒX‚É–Ú“I‚Ì–¾Šm‰»‚ð—v‹AÅI“I‚ɂ̓IƒuƒT[ƒ”ƒ@[‚Æ‚µ‚ăƒCEƒEƒBƒ‹ƒLƒ“ƒXiRoy Wilkinsj‚ð”hŒ­‚·‚邪‰Á–¿‚Í‚µ‚È‚¢‚±‚Æ‚ðŒˆ’è‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B [48] NNC‚͍•l’c‘Ì‚Ì“ˆêíüA‚‚܂èŠù‘¶’c‘̘̂A‡‘gD‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ð搂Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªA‹³‰ïA•lŽÀ‹ÆŠE‚Ì—£”½‚݂̂Ȃ炸ANAACP‚©‚ç‚àÏ‹É“I‚ÈŽx‰‡‚𓾂邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

‚±‚Ì“–Žžƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚́A“ˆêíü‚½‚éNNC‚̍s“®Œv‰æ‚Æ‚µ‚āu•l‚̐¶Šˆ‚Ɖ^–½‚ɏd‘å‚ȉe‹¿‚ð—^‚¦‚鑈“_‚̉º‚Ƀpƒ[‚Æ‘åOŽxŽ‚Ƃ𓮈õ‚·‚év‚±‚Æ‚ð‹“‚°A•l‚̊Ԃōª–{“IˆÓŒ©‚Ì‘Šˆá‚ª‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢˜A–MƒŠƒ“ƒ`‹ÖŽ~–@§’è‚ÉŒü‚¯‚½NAACP‚Ì‹c‰ïƒƒr[‚ÌŽx‰‡‚ð‘i‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½B [49] ‚µ‚©‚µAƒzƒƒCƒgŽw“±‘̐§‰º‚ɃŠƒ“ƒ`‹ÖŽ~–@§’è‚ðŠˆ“®‚Ì’†S‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð“à•”‘Η§‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‘I‘ð‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½NAACP‚É‚Æ‚Á‚āAŽ©‚ç‚ÌŠˆ“®—̈æ‚ÉNNC‚ªŽQ‰Á‚·‚邱‚Ƃ́A‚½‚Æ‚¦‚»‚ꂪ‚½‚Æ‚¦Žx‰‡‚Å‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚àAu•s•K—v‚ȏd•¡v‚ƍl‚¦‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½B [50] ‚³‚ç‚ɁAƒIƒuƒT[ƒ”ƒ@[‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‘n—§‘å‰ï‚ɏoÈ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½ƒEƒBƒ‹ƒLƒ“ƒX‚́A˜A‡‘̂̂܂ܐV‚µ‚¢‘gD‚ðŒ`¬‚¹‚¸‚ÉŠˆ“®‚ðŽÀs‚·‚邱‚Ƃ̍¢“‚ðŽw“E‚µAuiNNC‚ªjNAACP‚ÉŽæ‚Á‚Ä‘ã‚í‚é‰\‚ª‘¶Ý‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚év‚±‚Æ‚ð‹C‚É‚©‚¯‚Ä‚¢‚½B [51] ‚±‚̂悤‚È“G‘ΓI‹£‡ŠÖŒW‚Ì‚È‚©‚ł́Aª–{“IˆÓŒ©‚ª‘Šˆá‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‘ˆ“_‚ðŒ©‚Â‚¯‚邱‚Æ‚·‚獢“ï‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBˆÈŒãAL”͂ȍ•l‘åO‚ÌŽQ‰Á‚ª–Ú“I‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚É‚àŠÖ‚í‚炸A•l‚ÌŒoÏŠÂ‹«‚ª–Ú—§‚Á‚ĉü‘P‚³‚ê‚È‚¢’†‚ŏW‚ß‚ç‚ꂽ‰^“®Ž‘‹à‚́A1936”N‚©‚ç1937”N‚ÌŠÔ‚É‹Í‚©6000ƒhƒ‹‚É‚µ‚©‚È‚ç‚È‚¸A‘S‘‘gD‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚ÍŠˆ“®‚ðŠJŽn‚·‚邱‚Æ‚·‚ç‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç•s‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B [52] ‚»‚µ‚āA•l‚ÌŽQ‰Á‹}Œ¸ŒXŒü‚ªŒp‘±‚·‚éˆê•û‚Å”’l‚ª‘‰Á‚µA1940”N‚Ì‘æ‚R‰ñ‘å‰ï‚É‚ÍŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚Ì‚R•ª‚Ì‚P‚ªCIO‚𒆐S‚Æ‚·‚é”’l‚Æ‚È‚èA‚±‚ê‚炪NNC“à‚̍őå”h”´‚ð\¬‚·‚é‚Æ‚Æ‚à‚ÉŽÀŽ¿ã‚ÌŒˆ’茠‚ð¶ˆ¬‚·‚é‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚½B [53] Œ¾‚í‚΍•l‚̉^“®‚ªA˜J“­‰^“®‚Ɉù‚ݍž‚Ü‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

‚±‚ÌNNC‘æ‚R‰ñ‘å‰ï‚ŁAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚͉E‚ÌŽ«”C‚ð”­•\‚·‚éBƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ªŽ«”C‚Ì——R‚É‹“‚°‚é‚Ì‚ªA•l‚ÌŽ©•„i‚Ì–Ú“I‚Æ‚ÍNNC‚ªˆÙ‚È‚Á‚½•ûŒü‚ð•à‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éB [54] ‚±‚̍•l‚É‚æ‚éˆÓŽvŒˆ’èAŽ©•“w—Í‚ðd—vŽ‹‚·‚éŽp¨‚±‚»A1920”N‘ãˆÈ—ˆ‚̔ނ̎v‘z‚ðŠÑ‚­‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾B‚Æ‚±‚낪‘¼•û‚ŁANNC‚ª•lˆÈŠO‚ɉ‡•‚ð‹‚ß‚é‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚̂́A˜A‡‘gD‚Å‚ ‚éNNC‚ðŽx‚¦‚邱‚Æ‚ªŠú‘Ò‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½•l’c‘Ì‚Ì‘«•À‚Ý‚Ì—‚ê‚ƁA•l‘åO‚©‚ç‚ÌŒ£‹à‚Ì’â‘Ø‚Æ‚¢‚Á‚½Ž–î‚𔽉f‚µ‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA‘¼‚É—LŒø‚È‘ãˆÄ‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB [55]

 

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1930”N‘ã‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ‚́A‘å‹°Q‚É‚æ‚éŒoÏŠÂ‹«‚̈«‰»‚ªAŠK‹‰ˆÓŽ¯‚̐¬’·‚𑣂µ‚½‚Æ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚«‚½BCIO‚̑䓪‚É‘ã•\‚³‚ê‚镽“™Žå‹`“I˜J“­‘g‡‚ª‚»‚ê‚܂ł̃AƒƒŠƒJ˜J“­‰^“®‚Ì‘å‚«‚ȏáŠV‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½lŽíEƒGƒXƒjƒVƒeƒB‚É‚æ‚é‘Η§‚ðæ‚è‰z‚¦AlŽí‰¡’f“I‚Ő퓬“I‚ȘJ“­‰^“®‚ð“WŠJ‚µ‚½‚ƉðŽß‚³‚ê‚Ä‚«‚½B [56] ‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚𒆐S‚Æ‚·‚鍕l‚̉^“®‰Æ‚Ì‘œ‚́A‚±‚̂悤‚ȃAƒƒŠƒJ‚Ì1930”N‘ã‘œ‚Ƃ͋ɂ߂ĈقȂÁ‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBƒAƒƒŠƒJ•l‚́A1930”N‘ã‚Å‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Å‚³‚¦‚àA‚³‚ç‚ÉŒ¾‚¦‚΃‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚̂悤‚ȎЉïŽå‹`ŽÒ‚Å‚³‚¦‚àA•l‚Æ”’l‚Ì—˜ŠQ‚͈قȂèA•l‚ɂ͍•l‚É‚æ‚é“ÆŽ©‚̉^“®‚ª•K—v‚Å‚ ‚é‚ƍl‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBŽè‚ð‚Æ‚è‚ ‚Á‚ăsƒP‚ɉÁ‚í‚邱‚Ƃ́A•l‚ÌŽ©ŒÈ”FŽ¯Ž©‘Ì‚ª•Ï‰»‚µ‚½‚±‚Æ‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚é‚킯‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

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‚‚܂èANNC‚ª‘¶‘±”­“W‰Â”\‚È‘gD\’z‚ÉŽ¸”s‚µ‚½‚±‚Ƃ́Aƒ}ƒCƒmƒŠƒeƒB‚̉^“®‚½‚鍕l‚̉^“®‚ªAƒ}ƒWƒ‡ƒŠƒeƒB‚Æ‚È‚é‚ׂ­˜A‡‚ð\’z‚·‚éÛ‚̃fƒBƒŒƒ“ƒ}‚Æ‹ê”Y‹ê‚µ‚Ý‚Æ‚ð•\‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½Bƒ}ƒCƒmƒŠƒeƒB‚½‚鍕l‚ª‹­—͂ȉ^“®‚ð’z‚­‚½‚߂ɂ́A‘¼‚Ì’c‘Ì‚âŒÂl‚©‚ç‚ÌŽx‰‡E‹¦—Í‚ðŠm•Û‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚Ì‚ª•KŽŠ‚Æ‚³‚ê‚邪A‚»‚ê‚́A­‚È‚­‚Æ‚ày•lŽ©g‚ª”FŽ¯‚·‚éŒÀ‚èz‚ł́A•l‚̐º‚ª”½‰f‚µ“ï‚­‚È‚éŒXŒü‚𔺂¢‚ª‚¿‚É‚È‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚É‘ã•\‚³‚ê‚é1930”N‘ã‚̍•l‚̉^“®‚́AƒAƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚ɐg‚ð‚¨‚«‚‚ƒ}ƒCƒmƒŠƒeƒB‚Ì‹«‹ö‚̉ü‘P‚ð—v‹‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªA‚»‚ê‚Å‚à‚È‚¨‚©‚”ނç‚Ì”O“ª‚É‚ ‚Á‚½‚̂͐lŽí“I—˜ŠQ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½BlŽí—˜ŠQ‚Ì’Ç‹A‹É‚ß‚Ä‹­‚¢lŽíˆÓŽ¯‚ª‚»‚Ì‚Ü‚Ü•ª—£Žå‹`‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚é‚킯‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢B‚µ‚©‚µAŽüˆÍ‚̏󋵂ɂæ‚Á‚āA‚©‚©‚éŽv’ª‚ª•ª—£Žå‹`‚ÉŒXŽÎ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚Í‚ ‚蓾‚éB‚±‚̍•l‚ÌŽ©ŒÈ”FŽ¯‚±‚»A–¯Žå“}ƒŠƒxƒ‰ƒ‹‚â˜J“­‘g‡‚𓯖¿‘ŠŽè‚Æ‚·‚élŽí‰¡’f“I‚ȉ^“®‚©‚çŽn‚Ü‚Á‚½1960”N‘ã‚ÌŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®‚Ì’†‚©‚çA yƒJƒ‰[EƒRƒ“ƒVƒƒƒXz‚·‚éuƒuƒ‰ƒbƒNEƒpƒ[v‚ÌŽå’£‚ª¶‚Ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­—vˆö‚ð‚È‚µ‚½‚ƍl‚¦‚ç‚ê‚悤B

uË”\‚ ‚é10•ª‚Ì‚Pv‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾—t‚Å•\‚³‚ê‚éAƒGƒŠ[ƒgŽå‹`“I‚ȍ•l‚̉^“®‚́A‘å‹°Q‚ð‹«‚É•l‰^“®‚ÌŽwj‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Ì—LŒø«‚𒘂µ‚­Ž¸‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Á‚½B‚±‚±‚ɍ•l‚̑命”‚ª‘®‚·‚é˜J“­ŽÒŠK‹‰‚ðŠÜ‚ß‚½“®ˆõA‘åO‰^“®‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̍•l‰^“®‚ªŽn‚Ü‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ÌŽ–î‚ðÛ’¥‚·‚é‚Ì‚ªƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì“oê‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾B‚»‚ÌŒãA•l‚̉^“®‚́A‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí’†‚É‘åO‰^“®“I—l‘Š‚ð‚³‚ç‚É‹­‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚­B‚±‚̍•l‘åO‚̉^“®‚́A1930”N‘ã‚ɂ́A•lˆÈŠO‚Ì“¯–¿‘ŠŽè‚ðŒ©‚¢‚¾‚µ“¾‚¸A•l‘åO‚Æ‚ÍŒ‹‹ÇlŽí“Iƒ}ƒCƒmƒŠƒeƒB‚É‘¼‚È‚ç‚È‚¢‚±‚Æ‚ð˜I’æ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚½B‚Æ‚±‚낪A‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí‚ªŽn‚Ü‚Á‚½‚Æ‚«‚ɁA•l‚͐lŽíW’c‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚ÌŽ©ŒÈ”FŽ¯‚Í‚»‚̂܂܈ێ‚µ‚‚‚àA‘‰Æ‚̐푈‚Ö‚Ì“Ë“ü‚É‚æ‚Á‚悶‚½‹­‚¢ˆ¤‘“IŠ´î‚É‚æ‚Á‚ČǗ§‚ð”j‚邱‚Ƃɐ¬Œ÷‚µA“à•”‚É‘½—l‚È‹Ù’£ŠÖŒW‚ðŽ‚¿‚‚‚àuŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡v‚ð’z‚«ã‚°‚邱‚Ƃɐ¬Œ÷‚·‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B [57]



[1] ƒ}ƒ‹ƒeƒBƒ“Eƒ‹ƒbƒ^[EƒLƒ“ƒOiÏρjwŽ©—R‚Ö‚Ì‘å‚¢‚È‚é•à‚݁[”ñ–\—Í‚Å“¬‚Á‚½•l‚½‚¿xiŠâ”gV‘A1959”NjA78•Å; Martin Luther King, Jr., Stride Toward Freedom:  The Montgomery Story (Harper & Brothers, 1958), p.69.

[2] ‚±‚ÌŽž‘ã‹K’è‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBC. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, rev. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1954), pp.9-11; Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks, the Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), p.58. ‚Ü‚½Œö–¯Œ ‰^“®Œ¤‹†‚Ì‘¤‚©‚çA1930”N‘ã‚̕ω»‚ðd—vŽ‹‚·‚錩‰ð‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮAˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆB Jack M. Bloom, Class, Race and the Civil Rights Movement (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), pp.69-71, p.128; Michael K. Honey, Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), pp.245-278; Earl Lewis, In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, Power in Twentieth-Century Norfolk, Virginia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), pp.167-198. 1970”N‘ãˆÈŒã‚ÌŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®ŽjŒ¤‹†‚Ì“®Œü‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBSteven L. Lawson, "Freedom The, Freedom Now: The Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement," American Historical Review 96 (April, 1991); 456-471.

[3] ‚±‚ÌŒ¾—t‚͈ȉº‚̉^“®“–Ž–ŽÒ‚Ƃ̃Cƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚ðW‚ß‚½–{‚̃^ƒCƒgƒ‹‚É‚Ü‚Å‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éBHowell Raines, My Soul Is Rested: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement in the Deep South (New York: Penguin, 1977)@‚Ü‚½ƒwƒCƒ}[‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBKay Mills, This Littele Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (New York: Plume, 1993).

[4] ‚±‚±‚Å–{e‚Å—p‚¢‚é—pŒêAuŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®vu•lv‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Äà–¾‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚«‚½‚¢B¡“ú‚̃AƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚ł́AŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®civil rights movement‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾—t‚́A•lƒQƒbƒg[‚̐¶ŠˆŠÂ‹«‚̉ü‘P—v‹‚̂悤‚ÈŒµ–§‚É‚Ícivil rights‚Æ‚ÍŒ¾‚¦‚È‚¢‚à‚Ì‚ðÅ“_‚Æ‚µ‚½‰^“®‚ɑ΂µ‚Ä‚à—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚èA•l‚ªŠÖŒW‚µ‚½‰^“®‚ðL‚­ŽwŽ¦‚·‚錾—t‚Æ‚È‚è‚‚‚ ‚éB‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA‚±‚ÌŒ¾—t‚ª•l‚̎ЉïE­Ž¡‰^“®ˆê”Ê‚ðŽw‚·‚à‚Ì‚Æ‚µ‚ĐlŒû‚ÉäYàt‚µŽn‚ß‚é‚悤‚É‚È‚Á‚½‚̂́A1948”N‚Ƀgƒ‹[ƒ}ƒ“‘哝—Ì‚ª”C–½‚µ‚½Œö–¯Œ –â‘è“Á•ÊŽ–âˆÏˆõ‰ï‚ª•ñ‘To Secure These Rights‚ð’ño‚µ‚ĈȌã‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āA–{e‚ªŽæ‚舵‚¤Žž‘ã‚ɂ́A‚©‚©‚錾—t‚͈ê”Ê“I‚È•\Œ»‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A‰^“®‚Ì“–Ž–ŽÒ‚à‚±‚ÌŒ¾—t‚ð—p‚¢‚Ä‚Í‚¢‚È‚¢B‚»‚±‚ŁA•\‘è‚Å‚ÍŒã‚̉^“®‚Ì“WŠJ‚𓥂܂¦uŒö–¯Œ ‰^“®v‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾—t‚ð—p‚¢‚½‚ªA‹c˜_‚Ì’†‚ł͍L‚­u•l‰^“®vA‚à‚µ‚­‚́u•l‚̉^“®v‚Æ‚¢‚¤—pŒê‚ðŽg—p‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚µ‚½B‚Ü‚½Au•lv‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ďq‚ׂê‚΁AŒ»Ý‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ‚ł́AuƒAƒtƒŠƒJŒnƒAƒƒŠƒJl(African American)v‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾—t‚ð—p‚¢‚é‚Ì‚ªˆê”ʉ»‚µ‚‚‚ ‚éB‚Æ‚±‚낪AÝ•Ä‚̉p—̐¼ƒCƒ“ƒh‚̍•l‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é˜_l‚ðŠÜ‚Þ–{e‚́AAfrican American‚Æ‚¢‚¤—pŒê‚ðŽg—p‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚È‚¢B‚µ‚©‚µ‚»‚̈ê•û‚ŁA“–Žž‚̃AƒƒŠƒJŽÐ‰ï‚ł́A¼ƒCƒ“ƒhŒn‚ƃAƒtƒŠƒJŒnƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚Æ‚ª•†‚̐F‚䂦‚Ɉê‚‚̏W’c‚ðŒ`¬‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ì‚Í–¾”’‚ÈŽ–ŽÀ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚»‚êŒÌA‚±‚̏W’c‚ðL‚­ŽwŽ¦‚·‚é—pŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ä–{e‚́u•lv‚Æ‚¢‚¤—pŒê‚ðŽg—p‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚µ‚½B‚È‚¨AŒ»Ý‚̃AƒƒŠƒJ‚Å‚àAu•l(black)v‚Æ‚¢‚¤•\Œ»‚́AƒAƒtƒŠƒJŒnƒAƒƒŠƒJl‚É‚æ‚Á‚čL‚­—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA•Ž•Ì“I‚ȈӖ¡‚ ‚¢‚ÍŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B‚Ü‚½1920”N‘ã‘OŒã‚̍•l’mŽ¯l‚́A‚»‚ê‚Ü‚Å‚Ìcolored‚Æ‚¢‚¤•\Œ»‚ðŒ™‚¢AŽ©‚ç‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ðáàœ”‚ðž‚ß‚ÄNegro‚Æ•\Œ»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚±‚ÌŒ¾—t‚Í1960”N‘ã‚ɂ́A•Ž•Ì“I‚ÈŒ¾—t‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‹‘”Û‚³‚ꂽ‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èAŒ»Ý‚Å‚Í–¾‚ç‚©‚ɕ̏̂ƂȂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚µ‚©‚µA–{e‚ł́A“–Žž‚±‚ÌŒ¾—t‚ðŒê‚Á‚½ŽÒ‚̈Ӑ}‚𑸏d‚µA“Á‚ɐlŽíŽå‹`“I‚ÈŠÜˆÓ‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢ê‡Ablack‚Æ‚¢‚¤ˆÓ–¡‚ɉðŽß‚µAu•lv‚Æ–óo‚µ‚½B

[5] ŒÂX‚̍·•Ê‚ÌŽ–—á‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBWilliam Anderson, "The New Deal for Share Croppers," Nation 115 (February 13, 1935), pp.141-142;  John P. Davis, "A Black Inventory of the New Deal," Crisis 42 (May, 1935), pp.141-42, pp.154-155; John P. Davis, "What Price National Recovery," Crisis 40 (May, 1935), pp.271-272; John P. Davis, "NRA Codifies Wage Slavery," Crisis 41 (October, 1934), pp.298-299, p.304; George Edmund Haynes, "Lily White Social Security," Crisis 42 (March, 1935), pp.85-86; Jesse O. Thomas, "Negro Workers and Organized Labor," Opportunity 12 (September, 1934), p.278;  Robert C. Weaver, "A Wage Differential Based on Race," Crisis 41 (August, 1934), pp.236-237; Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks, pp.53-57; Harvard Sitkoff, "The New Deal and Race Relations," in Fifty Years Later: The New Deal Evaluated, ed. Harvard Sitkoff (New York: McGraw Hill, 1985), p.93; Raymond Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression: The Problem of Economic Recovery (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1970), pp.3-39, pp.83-193; Raymond Wolters, "The New Deal and the Negro," The Great Depression and the New Deal, vol.6: Women and Minority During the Great Depression, eds. Melvyn Dubofsky and Stephen Burwood (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990), pp.14-61.

[6] Robert C. Weaver, "The New Deal and the Negro: A Look at the Facts," Opportunity 13 (July, 1935), pp.200-202; "A Strategy for Negro Labor," Opportunity 11 (April, 1934), pp.103-104; Charles Houston and John P. Davis, "TVA: Lily White Reconstruction," Crisis 41 (October, 1934), pp.290-291, p.311.‚È‚¨ƒfƒCƒ”ƒBƒX‚ƃqƒ…[ƒXƒgƒ“‚Ì‹LŽ–‚ł͈ȉº‚̂悤‚ÈŽå’£‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ê‚éB

@‚à‚µ•l‚ª‚s‚u‚`‚ł̍·•Ê‚ð”j‰ó‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«A‚±‚Ì’nˆæ‚̎ЉïEŒoÏŠJ”­‚ŁDDD•l‚ª[•ª‚ȃVƒFƒA‚ðŠl“¾‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é‚È‚ç‚΁A”Þ‚çi•lj‚Í‘å‚«‚­‘Oi‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é‚Å‚ ‚낤B(p.311)i–T“_A•MŽÒj

@‚Ü‚½NAACP‚ªNRA‹K–ñ‚ÉŠÖ‚µA‹K–ñŽ©‘̂̔ᔻ‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A·•Ê‹ÖŽ~‚ð‹‚ß‚é•ûŒü‚ðÌ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBMinutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, February 14, 1933; July 10, 1933; September 12, 1933, Papers of the NAACP Part I, 1909-1950: Meeting of the Board of Directors, Records of Annual Conferences, Major Speeches, and Special Reports (Frederick, Md.: University Publication of America, 1982), Reel #2. (hereafter cited as NAACPP).

[7] Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks,  pp.47-48; Nancy J. Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983), pp.67-65; Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression,  pp.110-111.

[8] ‚±‚ÌŽv‘z‚ð‘ã•\‚·‚él•¨‚ª‚vE‚dE‚aEƒfƒ…ƒ{ƒCƒX(W. E. B. Du Bois)‚Å‚ ‚éBˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆBJohn Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans, enlarged 7th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994), p.274.

[9] ƒn[ƒŒƒ€Eƒ‹ƒlƒTƒ“ƒX‚É‚¨‚¯‚éNAACPANUL‚Ì–ðŠ„‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBDavid Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), pp.48-49.

[10] —Ⴆ‚΁A“–Žž‚Ì“à–±’·Š¯ƒnƒƒ‹ƒhEƒCƒbƒL[ƒY(Harold Ickes)‚ª‰ï’·‚𖱂߂Ă¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚à‚ ‚éƒVƒJƒS‚ÌNAACP‚ÌŠˆ“®‚́AƒuƒŠƒbƒWEƒNƒ‰ƒu‚âƒtƒ‰ƒ^ƒjƒeƒB‚È‚Ç‚ÌŽÐŒð’c‘̂̉„’·üã‚É‘¶Ý‚µA‹É‚ß‚Ä’†ŽYŠK‹‰“IFÊ‚Ì‹­‚¢‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B Drake and Cayton, Black Metropolis,  pp.526-563.

[11] Charles S. Johnson, "The New Frontier of Negro Labor," Opportunity 10 (June, 1932), pp.168-73.

[12] Lester B. Granger, "Step-Children of the Depression," Opportunity  10 (July, 1934), p.219.

[13] ƒXƒRƒbƒcƒ{ƒŽ–Œ‹y‚Ñ‹¤ŽY“}‚̍•lƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒBZ“§‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBDan T.Carter, Scottsboro: A Tragedy of the American South, revised ed. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979); James Goodman, Stories of Scottsboro (New York: Pantheon, 1994); Robin D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990), pp.84-89; Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp.115-125; Drake and Cayton, Black Metropolis, pp.734-736.

[14] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, May 9, 1932; Report of the Executive Secretary, August 15, 1932; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, March 14, 1932, NAACPP, Reel #2.

[15] W. E. B. Du Bois, "Youth and Age at Amenia," Crisis 40 (October, 1933), p.226.

[16] Ibid., p.227.@˜J“­‘g‡‚̐lŽí·•Ê‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆB Philip S. Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker, 1619-1981, 2nd ed.  (New York: International Publishers, 1981).

[17] W. E. B. Du Bois, "Segregation," Crisis 41 (January, 1934), p.20; W. E. B. Du Bois, "Free Forum: The N.A.A.C.P. and Race Segregation," Crisis 41 (February, 1934), pp.52-53.@‚È‚¨A–{e‚ł́Asegregation‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮuŠu—£vAseparation‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ắu•ª—£v‚Æ‚¢‚¤–óŒê‚ðˆê—¥‚µ‚Ä—p‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éB

[18] Ibid., p.116.

[19] Abram L. Harris to W. E. B. Du Bois, January 6, 1936, in The Correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois, vol.I: Selections 1877-1934, ed., Herbert Aptheker (Amherst: Massachusetts University Press, 1973), pp.472-473; B. Joyce Ross, Joel Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911-1937 (New York: Athenaeum, 1972), p.195.‚È‚¨ƒGƒCƒuƒ‰ƒ€EƒnƒŠƒX‚́A“–Žžƒnƒ[ƒh‘åŠw‚ÌŒoÏŠw‹³Žö‚Å‚ ‚èA˜J“­‘g‡‚É‚æ‚élŽí·•Ê‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éæ‹ì“IŒ¤‹†ŽÒ‚̈êl‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½BˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆBSterling D. Spero and Abram Harris, The Black Worker: The Negro and the Labor Movement (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931).

[20] Walter F. White, "Comments on Segregation," Crisis  41 (March, 1934), pp.80-82.

[21] W. E. B. Du Bois, "Segregation in the North," Crisis 41 (April, 1934), pp.115-116.

[22] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, September 8, 1930; December 12, 1932, NAACPP, Reel #2; W. E. B. Du Bois, "Segregation in the North," p.115; W. E. B. Du Bois, The Autobiography of W. E. B. Du Bois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the last Decade of Its First Century (New York: International Publishers, 1968), pp.294-298.

[23] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors," April 9, May 13, June 11, July 9, 1934, NAACPP, Reel #2; Ross, Joel Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, pp.187-210.

[24] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors," September 10, 1934, NAACPP, Reel #2.

[25] Report of Committee on Future Plan and Program of the NAACP, 1935, NAACPP, Reel #9.

[26] Minutes of the Special Meeting of the Board of Directors, November, 24, 1934, NAACPP, Reel #2.

[27] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, February 11, 1935; June 10, 1935, NAACPP, Reel #2.

[28] Jervis Anderson, A. Randolph: A Biographical Portrait (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972); Paula F. Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph: Pioneer of the Civil Rights  Movement (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1990); Herbert Gerfinkel, When Negroes March: The March on Washington Movement in the Organizational Politics (New York: Anthneum, 1969); Theodore Kornweibel, Jr., No Crystal Stair: Black Life and the Messenger, 1917-1923 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1975); William H. Harris, Keeping the Faith: A Philip Randolph, Milton P. Webster, and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1925-1937 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977).

[29] Mark Ellis, "'Closing Ranks' and 'Seeking Honors': W. E. B. Du Bois in World War I," Journal of American History  79 (June, 1992), pp.110-113; A. Philip Randolph, gWho Shall Pay for the War,h Messenger 1 (November, 1917), p.31; Anderson, A. Philip Randolph, pp.106-109; Kornweibel, Jr., No Crystal Stair, pp.33-34.

[30] ‚±‚̃K[ƒ”ƒBŽå‹`ŽÒ‚ƁuƒƒbƒZƒ“ƒWƒƒ[Eƒ‰ƒfƒBƒJƒ‹v‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ɂ‚¢‚Ă͈ȉº‚Ì’˜‘‚ªÚ‚µ‚¢BJudith Stein, The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1986), Chapter 3.

[31] Captain John B. Trevor to General Marlbourough, April 5, 1919, in The Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, vol.1, 1916-August, 1919 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p.401; Stein, The World of Marcus Garvey, pp.46-59.

[32] E. David Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1955), pp.8-9.

[33] A. Philip Randolph, "Du Bois Fails as a Theorist," Messenger 2 (December, 1919), p.7.

[34] 1920”N‘ãA•llŒû‚Ì‘å‹K–͂ȈڏZ‚ðŒo‚½Œã‚Ì–k•”“sŽs‚ł́A•l“ÆŽ©‚ÌŒoÏŒ—AŠˆàuƒuƒ‰ƒbƒNEƒƒgƒƒ|ƒŠƒXv‚ð‚‚­‚蓾‚é‚Æ‚µ‚½Žv‘z‚ªAlŒû‘‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‹»—²‚µ‚½•l’†ŽYŠK‹‰EŽÀ‹Æ‰Æ‚̊ԂōL”Í‚ÈŽxŽ‚𓾂Ă¢‚½BˆÈ‰º‚ðŽQÆB@Joe William Trotter, Jr., Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat, 1915-1945 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), chapter 3; Kenneth L. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976), chapters 9, 10, and 11; Allan H. Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto, 1890-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), chapters 3 and 4; Drake and Cayton, Black Metropolis, especially pp.77-97.

[35] ƒvƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ŽÐ‚Ì—ðŽj‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBStanley Budder, Pullman: An Experiment in Industrial Order and Community Planning, 1880-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967).

[36] Spero and Harris, The Black Worker, p.285.

[37] Anderson, A. Philip Randolph, pp.158-159.

[38] A. Philip Randolph, "The Pullman Company and the Pullman Porter," Messenger 12 (September, 1925), p.336.

[39] •l‚̃XƒeƒŒƒIƒ^ƒCƒv‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBGeorge M. Fredrickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1971); Joseph Boskin, Sambo: The Rise & Demise of an American Jester (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Stanley M. Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959), pp.81-83.

[40] ‚È‚¨Aƒ‚ƒ“ƒgƒSƒƒŠ[EƒoƒXEƒ{ƒCƒRƒbƒg‚̍ۂɁAƒ[ƒUEƒp[ƒNƒX‘ߕߌシ‚®‚³‚܍R‹c‰^“®‚ð‘gD‚µ‚½‚Ì‚ªABSCPƒ‚ƒ“ƒgƒSƒƒŠ[Žx•”’·‚щƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì”M—ó‚ÈŽxŽŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚dE‚cEƒjƒNƒ\ƒ“(E. D. Nixon)‚Å‚ ‚éBÚ×‚́AKing, Stride Toward Freedom, pp.44-46, pp.55-57 ; Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963 (New York: Touchstone, 1989), pp.128-138.

[41] American Federation of Labor, Report of the Proceedings of the Fifty-fourth Annual Convention of the American Federation of Labor (Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler), p.707.@‚È‚¨A‹ß”N‚̍•lŽÐ‰ïŽjŒ¤‹†‚́A]‘®‚µ‚½’nˆÊ‚É’u‚©‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚ðˆÓ–¡‚µ‚È‚¢ŒÀ‚èA‚±‚Ì‚Æ‚«‚̃‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚ÌŒˆ’f‚Æ“¯‚¶‚­lŽíŠu—£‚³‚ꂽ‘g‡E‘gD‚ð•l˜J“­ŽÒŽ©‚炪‘I‘ð‚µ‚½‚±‚Ƃ𖾂炩‚É‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éBÚ×‚͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆB@James R. Grossman, Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), p.8; Robin D. G. Kelley, "'We Are Not What We Seem': Rethinking Black Working-class Opposition in the Jim Crow South," Journal of American History 80 (June, 1993 ), p.97.@‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āAlŽíŠu—£‚ð•ïŠ‡“I‚É”½‘΂µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚±‚Æ‚ðŒˆ’è‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½NAACP‚Æ”äŠr‚·‚é‚È‚ç‚΁Aƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒt‚Ì—§ê‚́A•l˜J“­ŽÒ‚̈ê”ÊŠ´î‚É‚æ‚è‹ß‚µ‚©‚Á‚½‚Æ•]‰¿‚Å‚«‚é‚Å‚ ‚낤

[42] Walter Galenson, CIO Challenge to AFL: A History of American Labor Movement, 1935-1941 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960), pp.267-268.

[43] American Federation of Labor, Report of the Proceedings of the Fifty-fourth Annual Convention of the American Federation of Labor (Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler, 1934), pp.254-255.

[44] Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker, p.206; Harris, Keeping the Faith, pp.192-193.

[45] Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States, vol.4: From the New Deal to the End of World War (New York: Citadel Press, 1974), p.211; John P. Davis, "A Black Inventory of the New Deal," Crisis 42 (May, 1935), p.155; "A Strategy for Negro Labor," Opportunity 12 (April, 1934), p.102; Richard Wright, "Two Million Back Voices," New Masses 18 (February 25, 1936), p.15; Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression, p.362; Lawrence S. Wittner, "The National Negro Labor Congress: A Reassessment," American Quarterly 12 (Winter, 1970), p.884. ‚È‚¨]—ˆNNC‚Í‹¤ŽYŽå‹`ƒtƒƒ“ƒg‚ƉðŽß‚³‚ê‚Ä‚«‚Ä‚¢‚½B‚µ‚©‚µAWittner‚̘_•¶‚ªŽw“E‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚悤‚ɁAƒAƒƒŠƒJ‹¤ŽY“}ˆõ‚ªNNC‚Ì’†‚ōőå”h”´‚Æ‚È‚é‚Ì‚ÍNNC‚ª‘gD‚Æ‚µ‚Ẳe‹¿—Í‚ðŽÀŽ¿ãŽ¸‚¢Žn‚ß‚½1940”NˆÈŒã‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚èANNC‚ð‹¤ŽY“}ƒtƒƒ“ƒg‚Æ‚·‚é‰ðŽß‚ªC³‚ð‹‚ß‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Í–¾‚ç‚©‚Å‚ ‚éB

[46] A. Philip Randolph, "Keynote Address," Official Proceedings of the National Negro Congress, (Washington, D.C., 1936), pp.7-12, reprinted in A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States, vol.3: From New Deal to the End of World War, ed. Herbert Aptheker (New York: Citadel Press, 1973), pp.218-219.

[47] AFL‚ÆCIO‚Ì‹£‡ŠÖŒW‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBChristopher L. Tomlins, "AFL Unions in the 1930s: Their Performance in Historical Perspective," Journal of American History 65 (March, 1979): 1021-1042.

[48] Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, December 9, 1935; January 6, 1936, NAACPP, Reel #2.

[49] "Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the National Negro Congress," p.263.

[50] Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression, p.366.

[51] Roy Wilkins to Charles Houston, February 15, 1936, NAACPP, Reel #27.

[52] Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression, p.367.

[53] Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression, pp.362-363; Wittner, "The National Negro Labor Congress," p.899.

[54] A. Philip Randolph, "A. Philip Randolph Tells Why I Would Not Stand for Re-election as President of the National Negro Congress," American Federationist 47 (July, 1940), pp.24-25.

[55] Œ‹¬“–‰A•lŽ©g‚É‚æ‚é‘gDŒšÝ‚ð–Ú“I‚Æ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚āAƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒ‹ƒtAƒfƒCƒ”ƒBƒX‚Ì”FŽ¯‚ÌŠÔ‚É‘Šˆá‚Í‚È‚¢BOfficial Proceedings of the National Negro Congress, p.212, pp.218-219. ‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚ăfƒCƒ”ƒBƒX‚Ì‘I‘ð‚́A‚È‚¨‚³‚ç•K—v‚É”—‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ÆŒ¾‚¦‚éB

[56] ‚±‚̂悤‚ÈŽž‘ã‰ðŽß‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͈ȉº‚ðŽQÆBJohn Higham, "Multiculturalism @and Universalism: A History and Critique," American Quarterly  45 (June, 1993), pp.105-214. ‚Ü‚½ACIO‚́uˆÌ‹Æv‚ÉŠÒŒ³‚¹‚¸AlŽíEƒGƒXƒjƒbƒNEƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒeƒB‚Ì1920”N‘ã‚Ì•¶‰»“I•Ï‰»‚ª‹t‚ÉCIO‚Ì‹»—²‚𑣂µ‚½‚Æ‚·‚éˆÈ‰º‚̎ЉïŽjE•¶‰»Žj‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚àAŠK‹‰“I‰^“®‚ªlŽí‚ð‚̏áŠV‚ð‰z‚¦‚½‚Æ‚·‚éŠî–{“IŽž‘ã”FŽ¯‚Í•Ï‚í‚ç‚È‚¢BLizabeth @Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp.164-165.

[57] ‚±‚Ì‘æ‚QŽŸ¢ŠE‘åí’†‚̉^“®A˜A‡\’z‚̐¬Œ÷‚Æ‚»‚Ì–â‘è“_‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮAÙeu•lŽv’ª‚̕ω»‚ÆŒö–¯Œ ˜A‡‚̍\’zi‚Qj`ˆ¤‘“IR‹c‚Æ‚µ‚ẴƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“‘åsiA1942”Nvw’nˆæ•¶‰»Œ¤‹†x‘æ11†iŽŸ†ŒfÚ—\’èj‚ðŽQÆB